Cincinnati was surveyed in 1857, and was located somewhere in the vicinity of Willow Springs school house, in Iowa Township. No lots were ever sold or houses built.
Buffalo was located at the place now known as Buffalo Hollow, not far from Eagle Springs.
Iola was located near Wolf River, across from Fanning, about where Iola school house now is.
Winona was on the county line, west of Highland. The legislature granted a charter for the university there to be called Hamby University.
Syracuse was located in Wolf River township, near where a school house is now located, in Distrsct[sic] No. 7.
Lafayette was in Centre township, on the Missouri river, and was, in 1857-58, a really promising and pushing town.
Mount Vernon was below Lafayette. It existed on paper.
Smithton was John W. Smith's town, in Burr Oak, that died a-bornin'.
Columbia was in Burr Oak Township, and once had high aspirations. it is said to have at one time contained 200 inhabitants and a number of business houses. The school house in what is called Columbus district is now all that remains of the town.
Whitehead, later called Bellemont, was on the river, above Wathena. In 1859-60 it was booming, and making more noise than all the other towns in the county.
Petersburg was laid off on an immense scale, on the river, between Palermo and Geary City. The proprietor was Peter Cadue, a Frenchman, married to an Indian squaw, and who acted as interpreter and trader to the Kickapoos. He was formerly located at Wathena, and Peter's Creek was named for him. His Petersburg town lots afforded fat pickings for printers for a few years, in swelling the delinquent tax lists.
Evansville was platted by "Jib" Evans. No lots were ever sold. The land cornered on what is now Robert Lazelere's farm. Another story is:
Evansville was located on the north half of section 25, township 3, and range 2 1. The projector of this town was D. M. Johnston, who filed his claim on June 1, 1857, in behalf of the proprietors, the Evansville Townsite Company. The proper filings were made by Hon. Joel P. Blair in the land office in Doniphan. With this entry the town's official record ends, and it is extremely doubtful if it ever came into being.
Rogersville was located on what is now James Taylor's place, two and one-half miles north of Troy. When Troy was first entered as a townsite and the County seat, the county officers had to go to Rogersville for the mail.
LeRoy was laid out near the Bayne crossing on Wolf river, about three miles from Highland Station.
Fairview was laid out by Murphy T. Swinney (his mark) and the plat filed, and the streets and alleys dedicated to public use, May 4th, 1857. The entire northwest quarter of section 11, township 3, range 22, and all of section !0, township 3, range 22, were platted. The site is now cut up into small fruit farms.
Joseph M. Holt, Charles F. Holley, Alfred F. Barnett, James M. Teagarden, John S. Tisdale, and Napoleon D. Giddings platted the town of LaPorte on the east half of section 28, township 2, range 22, and filed it for record September 16, 1857.
James R. Whitehead, president, and Joseph Penny, secretary of the Whitehead Town company, platted the town of Bellemont and filed for record a map of the town, designated as "Keys' map of the town of Bellemont" on Jane 20, 1858. The land is described as the west fractional half of section 15. and the northwest quarter of Section 22, and the northeast quarter of section 21, in township 2, range 22,
Landondale, or Mount Vernon was laid out on what is now the Hargis farm near the mouth of Mosquito Creek. The land is described as the northeast quarter of section 30, and the fractional southeast quarter of 19, in township 2, range 21.
On, October 16, 1882, there was filed for record a plat of Eagle Springs on the southwest quarter and the northeast quarter of section 16, township 2. range 20.
Troy Junction is all that is left of the of Maynard.
James J. Reynolds, Arthur K. Frogge, Stephen G. Fish, James H. Fish and Nelson Casteel platted the townof Arizona, and filed the plat March 1, 1856. It was in section 36, township 2 but the range is missing.
The town of Pittsburg was platted on section 3, township 4, range 20, now the John Albers and John Wynkoop land. The plat was pretentious, but the town came to naught. The projectors were A. G. Ege, B. S. Warton, J. H. Jones. E. A. Seavy, I. McCoy, H. W. Hudnan, Wm. K. Richardson and James F. Forman.
Charleston was in Centre township, on the river, near the Burr Oak line. Judge Byrd built a storehouse there in 1857. Jeff Jenkins had a law-office, L. D. Stocking a jeweller's shop, and the town made a lively push for a short time. Then it disappeared from the map. About two years ago Gibson and Clary established a store on the old site and petitioned for a postoffice. They wished to have the office, called Charleston, but found that the name had been appropriated by a village in the short grass country and the office was named Bozarth.
Syracuse was in Wolf River township near where the school house of that name is now located. Walter S. Peck, Abijah D. Reeves, E. J. Doyle and Wm. Vickery filed the plat of the town on the 26th of March 1858. The land platted was the north half of section 1, township 4, range 19.
A correspondent for the Philadelphia Ledger, who dated his letter, "St. Joseph, Upper Missouri, Sept. 11, 1854," gave the following information concerning the daughter of a wealthy chief of the Iowas, who was in the market for a white husband:
"The county just over the river from St. Joseph has been the home of several tribes, among them the Sacs, the Iowas, the Kickapoos, etc. These are now in the act of removal to new homes to make room for the whites.
"The Sac Agency and Mission, some twenty-five miles west of this place, will be deserted, and when the territory shall have been surveyed, will be offered with the rest of the public land, for sale to the highest bidder. It is a magnificent farm of 640 acres, 200 of which are under fence and in a high state of cultivation. This farm has been worked for that tribe by government hands, and everything raised on it has enured to the benefit of the Indians alone. At the time I passed the place, the Indians were on the eve of celebrating a feast, and were scouring the country around for dogs, which they esteem a great delicacy. They freely offered a pony for a dog, and had collected some seven or eight, which they were stuffing and cramming with food to make them fat. On no other occasion will they allow a dog to be molested or killed. In fact they regard the canine species with a sort of superstitious veneration, and believe that if they sacrifice good fat ones, they will be pardoned for all bad actions they have committed since the last dog feast, and have a good hunting ground and plenty of game until they again celebrate it.
"They are a most interesting people. Their chief is very old and very wealthy. To any respectable white man who will settle among them, and marry one of his daughters, he offers $10,000 in money, 500 horses and four sections of land. He wishes his people to become instructed in agriculture, and hence his offer. I saw the daughter and remained all night with the family. She is aware of the offer her father has made of her, and does not seem to take the matter very hard. In fact she told me that if "she got a man and he would use her well, she was ready."
"She is the oldest of the family of children, say 30 years. Although almost white the Indian shows itself all over her. She has high cheek bones; in other respects she is not bad looking. I will also add that although she walks with her toes turned in, like all Indians, yet she has the most delicate little foot and most exquisitely turned ankle I ever saw.
"In fact, gentlemen, as I expect to be near neighbors to those people, I do not see that I can do better than to take the old man's offer, If I do I intend to represent Kansas in Congress, after it shall have a territorial government and you need not be surprised if I bring my half-breed wife to see you at your office.
Would not the old Quakers in Philadelphia, when they saw the descendants of one of the pillars of their church married to a half-breed, exclaim, 'Oh! what a fall my countrymen?'
But I must close, and as I see my letters to you are being republished by
the country papers in Pennsylvania, I will only add further, that now is the
time to emigrate to Kansas, and that all who want to obtain homes here should
come now. I am, gentlemen, yours faithfully,
Two of the oldest settlers in the County having read the following story, united in pronouncing it a product of the imagination. The story concerns Doniphan County. It was first published in 1855.
AN AWFUL INDIAN TRAGEDY. - A Kansas correspondent of the St. Louis Democrat in commenting upon the protracted strife between the Iowa and Pawnee Indians, recounts the following horrible incidents:
"Six years ago, in the fall of 1849, three white persons, two gentlemen and one lady, who had been residing near old Fort Kearney, and had there attached to them a beautiful Pawnee girl, of about sixteen summers, set out for their home in Kentucky, taking the young Pawnee maiden with them. They had nearly reached St. Joseph when they met a band of Iowas. The Iowas asked for the Pawnee girl. She was refused them. She was on a horse behind one of the gentlemen. Several warriors approached and seized her long tresses, and threw her backwards to the earth. She screamed for help. A young brave, who seemed to have authority, approached. She threw herself upon her knees before him, and implored mercy. He deliberately levelled his rifle and shot her through the heart. He then severed her head from her body and stuck it upon the top of a pole, and had a war dance around it. They then quartered her body and each warrior of the band bearing part of It, marched after their chief, who bore her head aloft upon the pole, to the nearest village, where they held a great feast.
"In the meanwhile the whites hastened to this place and gave information of these diabolical proceedings to Col. A. J. Vaughan, who was then Indian Agent here. He immediately mounted his horse and rode to Ft. Leavenworth, got a detachment of dragoons, hastened back, and gave them a surprise. He arrested those who were concerned in her capture and death, and had them imprisoned at Ft. Leavenworth, where they remained only several months, and were released without prosecution of any kind. The head and limbs of the hapless girl were put together in a coffin and decently interred.
"When the news reached the Pawnees they made an incursion into the country of the Iowas and stole many of their horses.
"White Cloud, then the head chief of the Iowas, took a band of warriors down among the Pawnees, and destroyed one of their villages, killing even the women and children. In this encounter his right eye was pierced and destroyed by an arrow, aimed by a boy but ten years old. In the next instant his unerring tomahawk was buried in the cleft skull of the brave child, and the battle ended. All, old and young, male and female, were indiscriminately butchered.
"Col. Vaughn made a report of it to the government and was instructed forthwith to depose White Cloud, and have another chief elected in his place.
"An old man named No Heart was unanimously chosen. It is a strange name for one of his character, for he is an excellent man, and still enjoys the confidence of the people and the respect of the whites. He at once entered into a treaty of peace with the Pawnees and since that time they have lived in friendship.
"White Cloud retired from the society of men. He sat alone in silent gloom. An impenetrable cloud seemed to rest upon his spirit. It was not grief for his barbarous butcherings; but it was wounded pride that broke his heart. He died in a short time and his body was placed upon the summit of a high hill, that overlooks, for a great distance, the Missouri river. A white post was planted at the head of his grave filled with horses and scalps, drawn rudely in red paint, and which contained his epitaph, showing his glories in the number of persons he has slain and of horses he has stolen."
"This was the same White Cloud whom Bayard Taylor mentioned as having crossed the ocean in the steamship with himself when he first essayed a tour of these Oriental climes, and is the same whom Col. Melody of St. Louis, introduced at the leading courts of Europe with eclat."
Sol Miller reprinted this story in the White Cloud Chief, Nov. 12, 1857, with comment, pronouncing it "the most satisfactory and perhaps the truest account of the chief that we have yet obtained."
In looking at the history of the Indian tribes that inhabited Doniphan County previous to its organization as such, in 1854, it has been a difficult matter to get at some important items connected with their early history. No two authorities agree on the number of Indians in any of these tribes, which were the Iowas, Kansas, Sacs and Foxes, and Kickapoos, and some of them differ widely. From the best information obtainable, the Iowas numbered about 800 when they came here from the Platte Purchase in 1837. Their head chief at that time was old White Cloud. The present number of their reservation along the state line between Kansas and Nebraska is about 100, and Jim White Cloud, probably a descendant of old White Cloud, is chief. The Sacs and Foxes numbered about 400 when they came herewith the Iowas in 1837, Their principal chief was Nesourquoit. There are perhaps little over a dozen of them on the reservation on the Big Nehama river now, and these have no chief so far as I know. It must be remembered that these Indians were only a small band of that once warlike tribe, which broke away from old Black Hawk, when that wily old warrior induced the Winnebagos under Keokuk, to join in the war against the government in Illinois in 1832.
The following extract from "Ridpath's History of the United States" explains the cause of this Indian outbreak:
"In the Spring of 1832 the Sacs and Foxes and Winnebago Indians of Wisconsin territory began war. They were incited and led by the famous chief, Black Hawk, who, like many great sachems before him, believed in the possibility of an Indian confederacy sufficiently powerful to beat blacks and whites. The land of the Sacs and Foxes, lying in the Rock River country of Illinois, had been purchased by the government twenty five years previously. The Indians, however, remained in the ceded territory, since there was no occasion for immediate occupation by the whites. When at last, after a quarter of a century, the Indians were required to give possession they cavilled at the old treaty and refused to comply. The government insisted that the Red men should fulfil their contract, and hostilities began on the frontier. The governor of Illinois called out the militia and Gen. Scott was sent with nine companies of artillery to Chicago. At that place his force was over taken with the cholera, and he was prevented from co-operating with the troops of General Atkinson. The latter, however, waged a vigorous campaign against the Indians, defeated them in several actions, and made Black Hawk a prisoner. This of course brought the war to a close but the outbreak had caused a permanent split in the tribe, and the band headed by Nesourqoit, which opposed Black Hawk in the war, were finally located in northwest Missouri, and they were designated after this by the department of Indian affairs at Washington as the "Sacs and Foxes of Missouri." The band that followed Black Hawk was called the "Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi." They were much more numerous than the Sacs and Foxes of Missouri. When they came to Kansas they were located south of the Shawnees below the Kansas river."
The Kickapoos came to Kansas about the time the Iowas and Sacs and Foxes did in 1837. They were also from north west Missouri, the territory of the three tribes extending from the southern limit of the Platte Purchase, along the Missouri river to the northern boundary of the state. They probably numbered about one thousand when they came to Kansas. Authorities differ widely on this as they do on other tribes mentioned. Their principal chiefs were Kennekuk, Wathena and Hamilton. They now number six or seven hundred on their reservation south of Horton in Brown county, and their head chief is Little Simon.
The Kickapoos owned the southern half of Doniphan County and on south to the northern boundary of the Delawares at Ft. Leavenworth, the Iowas and Sacs and Foxes the northern half. The Sac and Fox lands lay between the Iowas and Kickapoos. The line between them and the Kickapoos commenced on the Missouri river, where Whitehead, a trading post, was established in 1852, thence due west, between where Horton and Hiawatha in Brown county now are, to a line running north and south, sixty miles north of Fort Leavenworth. The line between the Iowas and the Sacs and Foxes commenced at the mouth of the Wolf river and followed it up to the great Bend at a rock mound, erected for that purpose; it bore off southwest, between the old Presbyterian Mission and the great Nemeha Agency, then due west to the west line of Doniphan County, then northwest to the line above referred to, sixty miles west of Fort Leavenworth. This line was of course the southern boundary of the Iowa lands, which extended north to the great Nemeha river and as far west as the Sacs and Foxes and Kickapoos. These lands were ceded to the general government in 1854, and the Sacs and Foxes traded a strip of territory along the northern boundary to the Iowas, for the reservation to which they were removed, west of the Iowas, along the big Nemeha to the south fork, near Salem in Richardson County, Nebraska. Since then they sold a strip of the west end of this territory, so their present reservation is quite small, but as there is but few of them it is large enough for their needs. In this treaty the Iowas reserved about 95,000 acres of their lands in Doniphan County, to be sold at public sale to the highest bidder. It was stipulated in the treaty, that theme, lands were not to be occupied by white settlers, until after they were surveyed and sold, but so eager were the people to secure homes, that they commenced settling them up before they were surveyed. The government ordered the agent at Great Nemeha Agency, Major Vanderslice, to expel these intruders. This he attempted to do by proclamation. Failing of this, he visited them in person, and warned them if they did not leave on their own accord, he would expel them by force by United States troops from Leavenworth. This sent most of them away but a few remained and were not molested. Encouraged by this, those who had gone away in the belief that if they did not do so they would be driven out by United States troops, returned, and in a short time these lands were all occupied by white settlers, in violation of the treaty, by which the Indian title to them was to be extinguished when the government fulfilled its treaty obligations to the Indians. In the meantime the government foreseeing that if it drove the settlers away, speculators were liable to combine and bid the lands in for a mere trifle, commissioners were appointed who appraised each quarter-section at so much per acre and the settlers were allowed to bid it in at the sale which took place at Iowa Point in June, 1857, at the appraised value which rarely exceeded two dollars per acre and a great deal of it much less than that. Some of the lands are now selling at prices which would make a trust magnate look upon their possessions with envious eyes. This has no doubt led the Indian to a better understanding of his pale faced brothers' deep solicitude for his spiritual welfare, who, while breaking to him the bread of life, has taken occasion to relieve him of everything temporal which would have a tendency to make him worldly minded and thus retard his spiritual growth.
All the foregoing tribes I have described belong to what were known as emigrant Indians, that is, Indians the government had been removing westward for a number of years to make room for white settlers from the territory out of which they had been previously removed for the same purpose. The government in removing these emigrant Indians onto the public domain designed the territorial limits of each tribe separately for a two-fold purpose. First, if they wandered out beyond these, and went on the war path either for the purpose of plunder, which was most frequent, or to avenge some real or imaginary insult, they could be driven back on their old reservation, and secondly, when it came to removing them there could be no dispute about their territorial limits.
These tribes all had access in common with other tribes to the hunting grounds beyond their boundaries, which included the public domain extending westward to the Rocky Mountains.
A story is told by T. J. McCreary of Highland, who came among the Iowa Indians early in 1840, in connection with one of their hunting expeditions, which illustrates the Indians' superstitious nature. An Iowa Indian had been sick for a long time with some lingering disease that the Medicine men could not cure. Though they had done their best to frighten the evil spirit out of him, beating their tom-toms with totem sticks, it refused to budge. Finally the Great Spirit took the matter in hand and told the sick Indian if he could kill a Pawnee, with which the Iowas were at war, he would be restored to health. Charmed with an offer of a remedy so much to his liking, he joined a party of his tribe on a hunting expedition back in the Buffalo range on the Blue river, where they fell in with a war party of Pawnees and returned home a well man.
The following letter found among the private papers of the late Major Daniel Vanderslice shows some of the Indians' peculiar notions about disposing of their dead:
SAC AND FOX AGENCY, K. T.,Maj. Vanderslice,
March 18, 1859.
U. S. Indian Agt.,
Sir: There is an Indian by the name of Oua-uua-ne-pe-qua desires to convey to Ouak-a-he-ho-sea the news that his son Nah-to-wan-ich-cha-ki is dead and that he has charge of two of his horses, and has also made arrangements for sending away his spirit, or as more usually expressed, for throwing them away, but would prefer to hear from his father and desires that he would send his grown son, that he may fully please the father in performing these rights to his son.
Isaac G. Baker,
The Indian horses were so poor that he was prevented from going himself.
The following itemized account shows the cost of running the Great Nemeha Agency for six months, in 1860:
|Sacs and Foxes of Missouri, Annuity||$5000.00|
|Blacksmith and assistants||360.00|
|Iron, steel, etc,,||140.00|
|Bldg., Agr'l purposes, and pay farmer||670.00|
|Rec'g stolen horses and other Indian property||100.00|
|Iowa Indians, Annuity||6000.00|
|Blacksmith and assistants||860.00|
|Iron, steel, etc.,||140.00|
|Bldg, and rep'rs on Chief's house, etc.,||955.00|
|Agr'l and other purposes||450.00|
|Teachers' pay, one quarter at $500 per annum||125.00|
|Books, stationery, etc.,||75.00|
|Provisions, $165.00. Rec. stolen horses, etc., $100||265.00|
In addition to the above, there was agents' salary and two interpreters, $1150.00.
It must be understood that this money was derived from the sale of lands belonging to these Indians which the government held in trust for their use and benefit.
The following letter is the answer to an inquiry I addressed to an old Indian trader among the Kickapoos in 1841. While the writer is mistaken in the time the tribes he mentions came to Kansas, as it is known they came in 1837, and overestimates their numbers, his letter is nevertheless interesting.
WHITE CLOUD, KANSAS.
Dec. 27, 1904.
My Dear Friend: In answer to your request I will 1 say the Kickapoos, Iowas, Sacs and Foxes of Missouri were located here about the year 1832 and came from the country in Missouri comprising the counties of Atchison, Holt, Nodaway, Andrews, Buchanan, Platte and Clinton. Wathena was one of the leading Chiefs and Hamilton a second chief of the Kickapoos. They perhaps numbered fifteen or eighteen hundred, when they first came to Kansas. I can't tell their present number. Peter Cadue and Paschall Pensinean, Frenchmen, married in to this tribe about the time they first came to Kansas. Much could be written of them that would make interesting reading, but I will not undertake the job now. The Iowas came about the time the Kickapoos did. Their principal chief was Mo-hos-ka, or White Cloud, who was buried just below where the town of Iowa Point now is. Wolf, he of Wolf's Grove, was second chief, and was deposed by General W. P. Richardson for insubordination. Nan-cha-nin-ga, or No Heart, was head chief after White Cloud died. They numbered from 2000 to 2500 when they entered the territory. Their number now is greatly reduced and I cannot estimate it, as the tribe divided. Part went to Oklahoma and part stayed on the reservation and perhaps now number 225 souls. The Sacs and Foxes of Missouri came about the same time the Iowas did, and numbered from twelve to fifteen hundred, Nesourqoit and Peterokemis were head chiefs and Moless and Nokawet second chiefs. They now number less than 200 souls.
With the compliments of the season and best wishes for your welfare, I am very truly your friend,
White Cloud's burial place that Mr. Utt refers to was a large black-oak tree overlooking the Missouri river as far as the eye can reach and south to the head of Burr-Oak Bottom. It was on the roadside, where Job Dutton settled, near Iowa Point. A pole six or eight feet high, with some strips of red cloth fastened at the top marked the old chief's resting place when the country was first settled. All traces of this grave have long since disappeared.
White Cloud previous to his death lived south of this in a large double hewed loghouse with brick and stone chimney. This house stood on land now owned by Frank Potter, near where his residence now is. There were a number of these hewed log-houses in that vicinity but the Indians burned them all before they removed to their present reservation along the big Nemeha river to prevent them from falling into the hands of their pale face brothers. The houses were built by white men under the directions of the Indian agent. The Indians left a typical one of their wigwams, standing on the land which afterwards belonged to the late Jacob T. Pierce, which illustrated in its workmanship the Indians' architectural skill in all its primitive simplicity. This wigwam was sided up with bark, fastened to poles six or seven feet high set in the ground in a circle and was covered with the same material fastened to poles with the proper pitch converging in the centre. The bark was lapped like the clapboards on a frontier cabin. This vicinity was the home of the Iowa Indians before they went north, and they had a large graveyard near the wigwam just described which has long since been obliterated by the plow of the pale face, who has long been trying to engraft civilized ideas and customs on the aboriginal mind.
The Sacs and Foxes lived south of the Iowas on the Wolf river near a large spring, on land now belonging to J. B. Dutton. The mortality among them here was very great, as they had a large graveyard which has shared the same fate as that of their neighbors' on the north.
Rev. S. M. Irvin and his devoted wife who came to Kansas with the lowas and Sacs and Foxes as missionaries, and founded the old Presbyterian Mission about 1848, east of where the town of Highland now is, spent all the best years of their lives among the Indians in a noble but futile effort to plant the seeds of Christian civilization in a soil not adapted to its successful propagation. Some of the Indians were given splendid educations, but none of them ever put it into profitable use. While the few of them that remain have adopted the dress of the pale face, they still cling to the custom of their ancestors.
They take readily with most of the vices and a few of the elevating influences of civilization. The white man's fire water and his idle habits are more attractive to them than his comfortable dwellings and his well filled granaries.
Highland Station, Kansas, 1905.
Transcribed from Gray's Doniphan County history: A record of the happenings of half a hundred years. By P. L. (Patrick Leopoldo) Gray. Bendena, Kan.: The Roycroft Press, 1905. 3p. l. -84, 166,  p. front., plates, ports. 24 cm.
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