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FOOTNOTES
to
Earl Bohannon's
Diary

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K-1 5 Feb Fighting broke out when 2 natives advanced to the outpost of the First Nebraska Regiment, stationed to the northeast of Manila.  Sentry ordered for them to halt twice and fired on them when they refused to do so.  No sooner had the shot been fired than the Filipinos, who were occupying block-house No. 7, fired a signal for a general attack upon the Americans.  Insurgents expected to take troops by surprise but were not prepared for vigorous reception they received.  Filipinos concentrated at three points, Caloocan,  Gagalangin, and Santo Mesa.  At about 1 o'clock they opened fire simultaneously from all three places.  The Kansas & Dakota regiments compelled the enemy's right flank to retire to Caloocan.
K-2 10 Feb An advance was made upon Caloocan, the stronghold of the insurgents.  In the taking of Caloocan, a small town just north of Manila, the Filipinos were routed by the American troops.  An eyewitness had this to say:  "Brigadier General H. G. Otis holds the extreme left of the American line from the bay near Cakiican.  The regiments on the line and in support are:  The 20th Kansas, Colonel Fred Funston, eleven companies;  First Montana, Colonel Kerster, nine companies;  Third Artillery, Major Kobbs, four batteries as infantry, and the Tenth Pennsylvania, Colonel Hawkins, four companies."  Caloocan was taken after some brisk fighting and with only slight loss to the Americans but General Otis was not satisfied.  He pushed on to Malabon to which the insurgents had retreated and soon was in possession of the town.  Before leaving, however, Aguinaldo's savage hordes set fire to the town.
K-3 4 Mar The US cruiser Baltimore arrived at Manila from Hong Kong with Professor J. G. Shurman and Professor Dean C. Corcester, both civil members of the US Philippine Commission.  The transport Senator arrived on the same day with six companies of the 22nd Infantry as reinforcements to Otis' command.
Commodore George Dewey was commander of the Asiatic squadron of the American fleet.  On May 1st, he entered Manila Bay and attacked the enemy naval force, sinking or burning all their ships.  Not having a sufficient force to make a landing, he blockaded Manila, captured a naval arsenal, cavite, and distributed arms found there to the insurgents under Aguinaldo.  Dewey estimated the number of Spanish troops in Manila at about ten thousand where as the Filipino insurgents total about 30 thousand.
K-4 10 Mar The US Transport Grant arrived, having on board Major-General Henry W. Lawton, who had so distinguished himself in Cuba, together with the 4th US Infantry and a battalion of the 17th US Infantry.
K-5 24 Mar Wheaton's Flying Column General Wheaton was put in charge of a new divisional brigade for the purpose of corralling the enemy, and to cut off communications between the south & north insurgents armies.  They captured Guadalupe and the City of Pasig.  It was decided to make a concentrated effort to capture Malolos, the capital of the insurgent temporary government and the headquarters of the insurgent leader.  Here the Filipinos had massed their forces and prepared themselves for a fierce fight.  It was hoped that by taking Malolos the insurgent struggles would be broken.
K-6 25 Mar The attack began at 6 o'clock in the morning north of Palo.  The 20th Kansas and 10th Pennsylvania with the Montana volunteers on the left, protected by the Utah Battery, advanced over the rice fields on the double-quick yelling fiercely and firing by volley.  The enemy, strongly entrenched in the woods north of the Laloma church, finally fled.  125 dead were found in the trenches and many more in the woods.  As the line swung northwest and came to the Tulighan River, General Wheaton's brigade moved out from Caloocan.  The 3rd Kansas Artillery distinguished itself by fording the Tulighan River under heavy fire and charging the blockhouse.  the unnerved insurgents fled at their approach.
K-7 29 Mar General MacArthur advanced to Bocave, and at 11:45 he advanced toward Bigaa, and at 3:15 in the afternoon he turned toward Guiguinto, 3 1/2 miles from Malolos.  There was some fierce fighting in the afternoon.  Troops crossed the river at Guiguinto by working artillery over the railroad bridge by hand and swimming mules against fierce resistance.  The march towards Malolos was rapidly accomplished.  As the troops neared the outskirts of the city, General Hale's and H. E. Otis' brigades were stretched between the sea and the mountains.  At the sight of a white signal of surrender, our troops broke into cheers and song but the bearers suddenly broke and ran back into the city.  An instant pursuit was begun and the troops were received with heavy volleys.  The Americans camped all night outside the city.  The battle opened at daybreak.  From the huts natives threw knives at Kansas men, while showers of arrows flew on all sides.  The Kansas men led the left and at the end of the main street of the city they were met by a barricade of stones from which a hot fire was poured by a few insurgents.  Colonel Funston leaped from his horse and swinging his hat, led the Kansas men over the barricade and down the streets with terrific yells, firing as they ran.  But the town was deserted and there the victorious American army rested and feasted, while the American flag flew over the Gov building of Aguinaldo's capital.
K-8 Krag-Jorgensens - a 30 caliber rifle supplied to regular army.  45 caliber Springfield rifles were supplied the volunteers.
K-9 The eyes of the leaders now centered upon Calumpit, to which the insurgent Government had retired when Malolos was taken.
K-10 The troops had advanced to the edge of the Bagbag River, beyond which the enemy was entrenched and able to hold a large force at bay.  The bridge had been so fixed that the girders would part if a train crossed.  Fortunately the girders fell early.  The Kansas regiment was on the right side of the road and the Utah light artillery and the First Montana on the left.  In the center was an armored train mounted with six pounders & rapid fire guns.  The train was moved to the mouth of the bridge and a vigorous response was made to the fire of the enemy.  Colonel Funston then called for 6 volunteers, and along with himself, crawled across the ironwork of the bridge under heavy fire.  When they reached the broken span, they dropped into the water and swam ashore.  Upon reaching the bank, they charged the trenches with wild western yells, and the armed Filipinos fled before them.
The victorious march of the American troops had again been checked by a river - the Rio Grande.  It was too deep to ford, and the bridge had been stripped by the enemy.  Colonel Funston volunteered to cross the river and Wheaton gave him permission.  The first attempt to cross was to be made at night some miles below the bridge.  The barking dogs revealed activity in the American lines however, and the Filipinos were ready with showers of bullets to check the attempt.
The next day Funston defied the bullets of the Filipinos and crossed the river before the very eyes of the enemy.  With 120 Kansas men he went to a point several hundred yards from the bridge where 2 privates swam with a rope to the opposite shore where they attached the ropes to a portion of the insurgent trench, under the protection of a vigorous fire of our troops.  Several insurgents were on shore where the men landed, but fled when the men began yelling.  The rope was then attached to 3 rafts loaded with 50 men and drawn to shore under heavy fire.  This little band advanced upon the trenches and literally scared the Filipinos out of their stronghold.  The bridge was thus left without protection and our troops crossed and swept the enemy before them.
K-11 Emilio Aguinaldo  1869-1964, A Filipino patriot.  Led a revolt against Spain in 1896.  Won many battles, but agreed to go into exile on the promise of a large subsidy after he was forced to retreat into the mountains.  Returned home when the Spanish-American War broke out and helped the United States forces capture Manila.  Broke with the US because his homeland was not granted immediate independence.  He conducted a skillful guerilla campaign until he was captured by Col Frederick Funston in 1901.  He then took an oath of allegiance to the US.
Note:  Peace talks started in earnest but to no avail.  Fighting continued.
K-12 General Arsenio Linares - Commander of the Spanish garrison at Santiago de Cuba.  He was seriously wounded at Santiago de Cuba.  He was consulted by the Spanish commission when he met with the American on 14 July.
K-13 Major General Elwell S. Otis - Replaced General Merritt, who was appointed Commander-in-Chief of all forces in the Philippines.  During the 1st week of May, Major General MacArthur succeeded in capturing San Tomas after encountering strong resistance.  Colonel Arguelesses & Lt. Bernal were escorted to General Otis' headquarters to discuss ending the war.
K-14 Frederick Funston - 1865-1917,  Grew up in Kansas.  Became Colonel of the 20th Kansas Regiment of volunteer Infantry in the Spanish-American War.  Only 5' 5" tall, he was called the "fighting bantam."  Captured Aguinaldo in 1901.  He was rewarded with promotion to Brigadier General although he had been in the army only three years.
K-15 Aguinaldo's army began operations around Manila at the end of May.  The most important military movements took place under his direct control in the immediate vicinity of Manila.  His 1st objective was to seize the province of Covite, a step towards the conquest of Manila.  With remarkable speed the insurgents broke the Bacoor-Zapute line occupied important towns in the vicinity - Caloocan, Paranagne, San Pedro Macat and Mandalaluyong, and laid siege to Manila proper.

 

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