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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Saline County

1878

Map of Saline County - 1878

First settlements: Salina City, February, 1857, by Col. William A. Phillips, A. M. Campbell and others; Ohio township, September 12, 1865, Ernst Hohneck; Walnut township, 1865, G. S. Godfrey; Washington township, 1869; Spring Creek township, 1869, John Crittenden; Gypsum township, 1864, - Hollister; Dayton township, April, 1860, Dennis Morgan; Falun township, 1866, James Beverly; Eureka township, spring of 1866, Dennis Harkens; Pleasant Valley township, 1864, Mr. House; Liberty township, May, 1862, Mr. Rice; Smoky View township, 1866, D. T. Hopkins and the Husted family. - First church buildings: Salina City, 1864, Methodist; Spring Creek township, Methodist, Baptist and Catholic, in process of erection, 1878; Dayton township, 1867, Catholic; Smoky View township, 1870, Swedish Evangelical Lutheran. Religious services are held in the school houses throughout the county generally. - First school houses: City of Salina, 1861, by the school district; Ohio township, 1869, district No. 17; Walnut township, 1871, district No. 23; Elm Creek township, 1867, district No. 11; Washington township, 1872, district No. 43; Spring Creek township, Brookville, 1870, district No. 22; Gypsum township, district No. 39; Dayton township, 1868, district No. 9; Falun township, 1870, district No. 20; Eureka township, 1871, district No. 18; Pleasant Valley township, 1873, district No. 29; Liberty township, 1870, district No. 13; Smoky View township, 1874, district No. 36. - First marriages: City of Salina, Benjamin S. Bean and Sarah M. Morrison, December 6, 1860; Ohio township, E. F. Drake and Dora York, May 10, 1870; Elm Creek township, Daniel Humbarge and Anna Giersch, 1864; Falun township, Peter Soderberg and C. Hedberg, January 31, 1871; Eureka township, Riley Leadbeater and Miss Everhart; Pleasant Valley township, Frederick Baxter and Mary A. Garvin, March, 1871; Liberty township, E. White and Josephine Husted, 1869; Smoky View township, T. M. Husted and Bell White. - First births: City of Salina, Christie Campbell, October 25, 1859; Ohio township, Evander Light, Jr., June 23, 1868; Walnut township, Phebe Godfrey, 1868; Elm Creek township, Freddie Haven, 1864; Spring Creek township, - German, spring of 1870; Falun township, Ophelia Sundgren, November 1, 1869; Eureka township, Dennis Gray; Pleasant Valley township, 1864, a child to Mr. and Mrs. House; Smoky View township, Wilbur Hopkins, August 23, 1867. - First business established: City of Salina, general merchandise, July, 1858, by A. M. Campbell; Ohio township, general store, 1865, Ernst Hohneck; Spring Creek township, 1870, G. E. Snyder; Falun township, groceries and broom shop, Eric Forsse; Eureka township, blacksmith, John Parker. - First post offices: City of Salina, November, 1861, A. M. Campbell, postmaster, Ohio township, Honek, summer of 1867, Ernst Hohneck, postmaster; Spring Creek township, Brookville, 1870, J. W. Hogan, postmaster; Gypsum township, Pliny, George Prescott, postmaster; Falun township, Falun, February, 18, 1870, Eric Forsse, postmaster; Eureka township, Lesterville, C. L. Dyer, postmaster; Smoky View township, Salemsburg, J. P. Clarkson, postmaster. - In April, 1869, a large colony from the Western Reserve of Ohio, under the leadership of John Thorp, settled at Bavaria, in Ohio township, which place has gradually grown into considerable local importance. In 1877, a subscription of one thousand dollars by the neighboring farmers was the means of securing the erection of an Elevator at that place, by the Agricultural Club of Saline and McPherson counties. - In Eureka township, a Farmers' Club was organized in 1873, and has grown to be an important association. J. Weaver was the first president, and H. C. Grider first secretary.

Saline county was organized in 1859.

Population in 1870, 4,246; in 1875, 6,360; increase in five years, 2,114; population in 1878, 9,530; increase in eight years, 3,200. Rural population, 6,671; city or town population, 2,859; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 70.

* POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop.
Brookville City 173 Cambria 463 Dayton 370
Eureka 342 Elm Creek 299 Falun 338
Gypsum 252 Liberty 308 Ohio 343
Pleasant Valley 478 Smoky Hill 1,212 Smoky View 748
Smolin 717 Solomon 332 Spring Creek 362
Salina City 2,189 Walnut 365 Washington 239

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 30 per cent.; upland, 70 per cent.; forest (Government survey), 1 per cent.; prairie, 99 per cent. Average width of bottoms, from two to eight miles; general surface of the country, one-third level, one-third undulating, remainder high land.

Timber. - Average width of timber belts, from one-quarter to one-half a mile. Varieties: cottonwood, elm, box elder, oak and ash. The native timber along the streams is increasing since prairie fires have been restrained. Quite a number of timber claims have been taken, without very marked success thus far. Cultivation is not engaged in to any considerable extent for timber purposes, but nearly al1 the farmers plant more or less for shade, ornament and wind-breaks. Cottonwood, box elder and black walnut are the principal varieties.

Principal Streams. - The Smoky Hill river flows north and east; Saline river, southeast; Solomon river, southeast; Gypsum creek, north, Spring creek, northeast; and Mulberry creek, southeast. The county has a few springs, and well water is obtained at a depth of from 30 to 60 feet.

Coal. - No coal has been developed.

Building Stone, etc. - Good sandstone is found in all parts of the county. Salt springs and works at the mouth of the Solomon (a report on salt will be found under head of "Economic Geology," in another part of this report); also fire and pottery clay and large quantities of gypsum.

Railroad Connections. - The Kansas Pacific Railway runs from near the northeast corner through the center of the county, in a southwesterly direction. Principal stations: Salina and Brookville, the latter the western terminus of the second division.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 460,800; taxable acres, 298,880; under cultivation, 128,379.33; cultivated to taxable acres, 42.95 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 20,829.95.

A VERY LARGE YIELD. - Statement by J. C. Bender, Salina:

Fall Wheat. - Michael Giersch, living near the Saline bridge, in Township 13, Range 2 west, planted 20 acres of wheat in September, 1877, and harvested it in 1878, getting a crop that averaged 53 bushels per acre. It was raised on bottom land, and was old ground, ploughed and harrowed. The wheat was graded, and sold as No. 2, at the elevator in Salina. The cost per acre was $4.50.

A GOOD YIELD. - Statement by A. M. Claflin, Salina:

Corn. - J. I. Norton, of Salina, raised 30 acres of corn on Section 8, Township 13, Range 2, that was planted the last of April and gathered in October, averaging fifty bushels to the acre. The ground was some of the highest in the county, dark soil, with clay sub-soil. It was ploughed, harrowed and rolled and cultivated three times. The cost was $3.75 per acre.

Wheat. - Mr. Norton also raised a crop of wheat, of Red May and Kentucky Blue Stem varieties; he had 70 acres, which were planted in September and October, and harvested in June, yielding 25 bushels to the acre, some of it going as high as 35 bushels. The land was the same as that above, the highest in Saline county. The cost of produciug was $6.75 per acre.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $2,506; poultry and eggs; $4,898.31.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat 2,356.00 2,355.00 12,804.00 25,697.25 32,651.00 58,497.00 67,740.00
Rye 550.00 552.00 1,718.00 3,215.50 2,848.00 1,534.00 944.00
Spring Wheat 5,076.00 4,571.00 9,037.00 4,552.00 4,196.00 4,541.00 10,992.00
Corn 10,678.00 6,403.00 17,239.00 14,935.25 14,111.00 23,060.00 23,416.00
Barley 377.00 368.00 592.00 2,283.75 3,524.00 2,957.00 1,756.00
Oats 3,123.00 1,977.00 8,052.00 5,662.25 3,872.00 6,510.00 8,016.00
Buckwheat 10.00 7.00 32.00 1.00 29.00 41.00 12.25
Irish Potatoes 501.00 444.00 814.00 495.34 586.00 634.00 746.00
Sweet Potatoes 8.00 16.00 16.00 7.00 5.00 50.00 19.60
Sorghum 46.00 28.00 66.00 76.20 89.12 138.00 112.40
Castor Beans ----- 0.25 55.00 83.50 3.50 25.00 -----
Cotton ----- 0.25 4.00 20.25 0.75 0.50 0.25
Flax ----- ----- 15.00 96.00 0.75 ----- 1.50
Hemp ----- ----- 10.00 ----- ----- 5.00 -----
Tobacco 0.12 0.13 3.00 1.25 0.50 4.22 2.00
Broom Corn ----- ----- 6.00 376.43 498.75 1,855.00 1,207.50
Millet and Hungarian 73.00 280.00 294.00 686.50 1,215.25 2,582.00 2,079.00
Timothy Meadow 3.00 4.00 21.00 33.00 17.00 9.00 72.33
Clover Meadow 16.00 17.00 13.00 10.57 15.75 7.66 79.25
Prairie Meadow 11,153.00 8,170.00 729.00 1,815.00 207.00 1,433.00 3,669.00
Timothy Pasture ----- ----- ----- 0.50 ----- 21.00 1.00
Clover Pasture ----- ----- 15.00 0.25 ----- ----- 1.00
Blue-Grass Pasture ----- ----- 12.00 ----- 0.75 2.00 72.25
Prairie Pasture 3,656.00 2,713.00 3,193.00 5,521.00 1,689.00 3,643.00 7,440.00








Total 37,626.12 27,905.63 54,740.00 65,569.79 65,560.12 107,549.38 128,379.33

Increase in six years, 241+ per cent.
Average increase per annum, 40.16+ per cent.

RANK of Saline County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.








Wheat 15 21 9 6 6 2 2
Corn 38 49 40 46 47 48 48
Total Acreage in all Crops 34 40 33 36 36 23 21








STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

CROPS. ACRES IN
1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
VALUE OF
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.







Winter Wheat - bu. 67,740.00 9,243.00 in. 1,558,020.00 563,571.00 in. $903,651.60 $41,074.95 de.
Rye - bu. 944.00 590.00 de. 19,824.00 24,662.00 de. 5,947.20 8,733.18 de.
Spring Wheat - bu. 10,992.00 6,451.00 in. 109,920.00 28,182.00 in. 47,265.60 18,124.80 de.
Corn - bu. 23,416.00 356.00 in. 913,224.00 124,476.00 de. 182,644.80 4,141.20 de.
Barley - bu. 1,756.00 1,201.00 de. 38,632.00 35,293.00 de. 13,521.20 8,656.30 de.
Oats - bu. 8,016.00 1,506.00 in. 264,528.00 4,128.00 in. 44,969.76 3,305.76 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 12.25 28.75 de. 269.50 263.50 de. 215.60 210.80 de.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 746.00 112.00 in. 74,600.00 39,730.00 in. 18,650.00 5,759.00 de.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 19.60 30.40 de. 1,960.00 4,290.00 de. 1,176.00 5,074.00 de.
Sorghum - gall. 112.40 25.60 de. 12,926.00 2,944.00 de. 6,463.00 1,472.00 de.
Castor Beans - bu. ----- 25.00 de. ----- 275.00 de. ----- 275.00 de.
Cotton - lbs. 0.25 .25 de. 42.50 42.50 de. 3.83 4.67 de.
Flax - bu. 1.50 1.50 in. 16.50 16.50 in. 16.50 16.50 in.
Hemp - lbs. ----- 5.00 de. ----- 4,600.00 de. ----- 276.00 de.
Tobacco - lbs. 2.00 2.22 de. 148.00 1,642.80 de. 148.00 164.28 de.
Broom Corn - lbs. 1,207.50 647.50 de. 966,000.00 518,000.00 de. 36,225.00 19,425.00 de.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 2,079.00 503.00 de. 6,237.00 218.00 de 24,948.00 872.00 de.
Timothy Meadow - tons 72.33 63.33 in. 130.19 113.99 in. 650.95 569.95 in.
Clover Meadow - tons 79.25 71.59 in. 158.50 143.18 in. 792.50 715.90 in.
Prairie Meadow - tons 3,669.00 2,236.00 in. 5,504.00 3,354.50 in 16,512.00 10,063.50 in.
Timothy Pasture acres 1.00 20.00 de. ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture - acres 1.00 1.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres 72.25 70.25 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Prairie Pasture - acres 7,440.00 3,797.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----







Total 128,379.33 20,829.95 in. ----- ----- $1,303,801.54 $99,591.57 de.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1, 1878, 260,571 bushels, or an average of 136 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Number of cheese factories, 1; capital invested, $1,700; manufactured in 1875, 1,392 lbs.; in 1878, 11,970 lbs.; increase, 10,578 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 95,739 lbs.; in 1878, 153,571 lbs.; increase, 57,832 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 3,930; in 1878, 4,244; increase, 314. Mules and asses, in 1877, 391; in 1878, 590; increase, 199. Milch cows, in 1877, 2,572; in 1878, 2,623; increase, 51. Other cattle, in 1877, 4,926; in 1878, 4,820; decrease, 106. Sheep, in 1877, 4,389; in 1878, 3,913; decrease, 476. Swine, in 1877, 6,325; in 1878, 11,932; increase, 5,607.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 44; value of sheep killed by dogs, $132.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 9,587 pounds.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $73,120.74.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 25.75. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 2,664; pear, 97; peach, 43,274; plum, 3,428; cherry, 1,106. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 13,577; pear, 1,026; peach, 50,830; plum, 3,856; cherry, 3,174.

Herd Law. - The herd law went into operation in 1872, and public sentiment is very largely in its favor. It is claimed that were it repealed, a large proportion of the farmers would leave the county. It retards fencing and hedge growing to some extent, and stimulates grain growing. It is urged in favor of the law that with it more money can be made with less capital; that the farmers have not the means to fence, and that to abandon the law would be to compel them to quit the country.

Fences. - Stone, 1,004 rods; cost, $1,756.12. Rail, 5,565 rods; cost, $8,069.25. Board, 6,170 rods; cost, $8,884.80. Wire, 17,491 rods; cost, $12,943.34. Hedge, 161,375 rods; cost, $96,824.88. Total rods of fence, 191,604; total cost, $128,478.39.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 5; pounds of honey, 3.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $92,803.

Manufactures. - City of Salina: steam flouring mills, 2, capital invested, $85,000; carriage manufactory, capital, $2,000; breweries, 2, capital, $6,000; cigar factories, 2, capital, $5,000; tannery, capital, $2,000; fanning mill factory, capital, $2,000. Ohio township: cheese factory, capital, $1,700. Solomon township: water-power saw and flouring mill, capital, $2,000; steam salt works.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $473,115; railroad property, $281,238.75; total assessed valuation of all property, $2,503,671.75; true valuation of all property, $4,172,786.25. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $155,005.96; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, .06+.

Newspaper History. - The Salina Herald was established by B. J. F. Hanna, February 13, 1867, and has been continued under his management to the present time. It is Republican in politics.

The Saline County Journal was started in February, 1871, by W. H. Johnson, and was sold by him in August, 1872, to M. D. & L. E. Sampson, under whose management it has been conducted to the present time. The Journal is a Republican paper.

The Farmers' Advocate was established by the Allen Brothers, in the summer of 1874. December 1, 1876, it was purchased by David Beebe, who is still the proprietor.

The Kansas Central Advocate, a real estate monthly, was established May 1, 1871, by John W. Berks, who is still the owner.

Morning News. First issue July 4, 1878. G. R. Nunnelly & R. E. O'Connor, editors; Advocate Publishing Co., publishers. Paper ceased to be, July 31, 1878.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 64; school population, 3,239; average salary of teachers per month, males, $36.46; females, $28.56. School houses built during 1878, frame, 2. Total number of school houses, 58, frame, 55; brick, 1; stone, 2. Value of all school property, $74,466. No ornamentation of school grounds with shade trees.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 1, membership, 78; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $1,800. Congregational: organizations, 2; membership, 67. Episcopal: organizations, 1; membership, 57, church edifices, 1; value of church property, $2,000. Lutheran: organizations, 8, membership, 785; church edifices, 7; value of church property, $14,500. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 15; membership, 396; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $8,250. Presbyterian: organizations, 2; membership, 175; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $6,000. Roman Catholic: organizations, 2; membership, 2,000; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $7,000.

*Greeley township has been oragnized since census was taken.

Transcribed from First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the Years 1877-8 embracing statistical exhibits, with diagrams of the agricultural, industrial, mercantile, and other interests of the state, together with a colored outline map of the state, and sectional maps, in colors, of each organized county, showing their relative size and location, railroads, towns, post offices, school houses, water powers, etc., etc. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Rand, McNally & Co., Printers and Engravers, Chicago. 1878. Transcribed by Amanda Williamson, January 2002.


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