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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Republic County

1878

Map of Republic County - 1878

First settlement: The first settlement made in the county was by Daniel and Conrad Myers, on the northeast 1/4 Section 1, Township 4, Range 3, during the latter part of February, 1861. - The first church building was erected in the summer of 1872, at Fairview, by the Methodists. - The first school house erected was by district No. 1, in Township 4, Range 3. - First marriage: Thomas C. Reily and Nancy Campbell, June 8, 1867. - First birth: Lincoln Myers, September 15, 1861. - First post office: Salt Marsh, in Township 4, Range 2, James G. Tuthill, postmaster.

Republic county was organized in 1868.

Population in 1870, 1,281; in 1875, 8,048; increase in five years, 6,767; population in 1878, 10,132; increase in eight years, 8,851. Rural population, 9,119; city or town population, 1,013; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 90.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop.
Albion 375 Beaver 320 Belleville 687
Big Bend 414 Cortland 426 Elk Creek 543
Fariview 560 Farmington 562 Freedom 596
Grant 514 Jefferson 457 Liberty 494
Lincoln 558 Norway 375 Richland 668
Rose Creek 516 Scandia 633 Union 555
Washington 389 White Rock 490 ----- -----

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 10 per cent.; upland, 90 per cent.; forest (Government survey), 3 per cent.; prairie, 97 per cent. Average width of bottoms - Republican river, two miles; creeks, one mile; general surface of the country, undulating.

Timber. - Average width of timber belts, 80 rods. Varieties: ash, box elder, oak, walnut, hackberry and cottonwood. There is a large amount of artificial timber under cultivation in the county, with excellent results. The best farmers have groves of from 3 to 10 acres each, and large areas are being planted each year. Cottonwood, box elder and soft maple are the leading varieties, being the most rapid growers.

Principal Streams. - The Republican river enters the county at its northwestern corner, and traverses its entire width in a southerly direction. Mill and Rose creeks flow east into the Little Blue. White Rock flows northeast, and Beaver creek southeast, into the Republican. West and Elk creeks flow south. There are numerous smaller streams, also an abundance of springs. Well water obtained at an average depth of 30 feet.

Coal. - Coal underlies the southern one-third of the county, near the surface, in veins of from 15 to 30 inches in thickness. It is obtained by drifting, and is worth at the mines from $2.50 to $3 per ton. It is found in greater or less abundance in Lincoln, Jefferson, Norway and Grant townships.

Building Stone, etc. - A great abundance of superior limestone in all the townships, and red sandstone in some localities. The limestone is largely used for building purposes, and lime is manufactured in sufficient quantities almost to supply the local demand. Fire clay has been discovered in Jefferson and Lincoln townships, and pottery clay in Lincoln and Rose Creek townships. The "Great Salt Marsh" is located in Grant township, and embraces an area of about 4,000 acres, Wells of brine have been obtained at a depth of six feet, 65 gallons of which are said to produce a bushel of very fine salt, containing less than four per cent. of impurities. There is another salt marsh in Town. 4, Range 5, said to contain 5,000 acres. No analysis of the brine has been made.

Railroad Connections. - Central Branch U. P. Ry. enters the county in southwest part, follows up the east side of Republican river to Scandia, the present terminus. Stations: Scandia and Norway.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 460,800; taxable acres, 261,041; under cultivation, 99,967.57; cultivated to taxable acres, 38.29 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 9,734.82.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $2,277.50; poultry and eggs, $6,363.65.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1st, 1878, 544,901 bushels, or an average of 269 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Number of cheese factories, 1; capital invested, $1,200. Manufactured in 1875, 3,275 lbs.; in 1878, 850 lbs.; decrease, 2,425 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 117,265 lbs.; in 1878, 257,092 lbs.; increase, 139,827 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 3,711; in 1878, 4,481; increase, 770. Mules and asses, in 1877, 384; in 1878, 498; increase, 24. Milch cows, in 1877, 3,242; in 1878, 3,310; increase, 68. Other cattle, in 1877, 4,690; in 1878, 5,623; increase, 933. Sheep, in 1877, 2,222; in 1878, 3,884; increase, 1,662. Swine, in 1877, 18,011; in 1878, 31,286; increase, 13,275.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 19; value of sheep killed by dogs, $57.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 7,361 pounds.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat 3,001.00 3,001.00 2,331.00 4,337.00 2,404.00 1,588.00 2,507.00
Rye 1,098.00 1,098.00 1,208.00 4,310.25 7,270.00 4,882.00 6,854.00
Spring Wheat 3,599.00 9,943.00 25,426.00 28,755.58 26,521.00 17,586.00 36,429.00
Corn 20,907.00 22,726.00 21,714.00 23,512.00 26,940.00 47,541.00 36,969.00
Barley 241.00 683.00 907.00 2,988.28 7,210.00 6,228.00 5,781.00
Oats 1,897.00 4,724.00 5,105.00 5,354.16 4,979.00 2,973.00 5,142.00
Buckwheat 93.00 105.00 15.00 12.50 53.25 30.50 39.00
Irish Potatoes 458.00 734.00 820.00 576.95 1,018.50 885.00 929.00
Sweet Potatoes 13.00 9.00 4.00 1.24 5.67 3.12 15.85
Sorghum 346.00 259.00 207.00 342.21 227.00 347.00 282.00
Castor Beans ----- 1.50 3.00 3.25 12.75 164.50 7.50
Cotton 12.00 1.50 ----- 1.50 0.25 ----- -----
Flax 1.00 2.63 24.00 955.00 192.25 45.00 64.25
Hemp ----- 1.00 ----- ----- ----- 1.00 0.12
Tobacco 3.00 23.00 3.00 3.25 9.11 17.38 12.85
Broom Corn ----- ----- 15.00 54.43 67.87 211.00 54.25
Millet and Hungarian 136.00 364.00 303.00 248.25 591.50 1,120.00 769.00
Timothy Meadow 79.00 80.00 93.00 85.50 79.50 49.00 103.75
Clover Meadow 20.00 20.00 16.00 2.75 4.87 0.75 7.25
Prairie Meadow 7,494.00 10,451.00 263.00 1,388.00 3,298.00 1,472.00 1,548.00
Timothy Pasture ----- ----- ----- 178.00 9.50 ----- 4.00
Clover Pasture ----- ----- 1.00 1.00 ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture 4.00 4.00 5.00 5.62 0.25 0.50 5.75
Prairie Pasture 9,485.00 8,723.00 2,341.00 13,627.00 1,830.00 5,088.00 2,443.00








Total 48,887.00 62,953.63 60,804.00 86,743.72 82,724.27 90,232.75 99,967.57

Increase in six years, 103+ per cent.
Average increase per annum, 17.16+ per cent.

RANK of Republic county in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.








Wheat 18 7 5 5 11 20 13
Corn 23 24 33 34 31 24 32
Total Acreage in all Crops 27 20 30 24 29 30 31








STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

CROPS. ACRES IN
1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
VALUE OF
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.







Winter Wheat - bu. 2,507.00 919.00 in. 62,675.00 43,619.00 in. $40,738.75 $28,352.35 in.
Rye - bu. 6,854.00 1,972.00 in. 185,058.00 92,300.00 in. 55,517.40 27,690.00 in.
Spring Wheat - bu. 36,429.00 18,843.00 in. 619,293.00 355,503.00 in. 315,839.43 157,565.43 in.
Corn - bu. 36,969.00 10,572.00 de. 1,478,760.00 327,798.00 de. 236,601.60 16,316.52 de.
Barley - bu. 5,781.00 447.00 de. 167,649.00 11,949.00 in. 70,412.58 28,373.58 in.
Oats - bu. 5,142.00 2,169.00 in. 200,538.00 84,591.00 in. 36,096.84 18,704.79 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 39.00 8.50 in. 702.00 336.00 in. 561.60 278.80 in.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 929.00 44.00 in. 92,900.00 28,295.00 in. 23,225.00 9,077.50 de.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 15.85 12.73 in. 1,505.75 1,193.75 in. 1,129.31 848.51 in.
Sorghum - gall. 282.00 65.00 de. 32,430.00 7,475.00 de. 16,215.00 3,737.50 de.
Castor Beans - bu. 7.50 157.00 de. 75.00 1,734.50 de. 93.75 1,715.75 de.
Cotton - lbs. ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Flax - bu. 64.25 19.25 in. 835.25 340.25 in. 835.25 315.50 in.
Hemp - lbs. 0.12 0.88 de. 110.40 809.60 de. 6.62 48.58 de.
Tobacco - lbs. 12.85 4.53 de. 9,509.00 3,352.20 de. 950.90 335.22 de.
Broom Corn - lbs. 54.25 156.75 de. 43,400.00 125,400.00 de. 1,627.50 4,702.50 de.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 769.00 351.00 de. 2,307.00 1,053.00 de. 8,074.50 3,685.50 de.
Timothy Meadow - tons 103.75 54.75 in. 155.62 82.12 in. 700.29 369.54 in.
Clover Meadow - tons 7.25 6.50 in. 10.87 9.74 in. 48.91 43.82 in.
Prairie Meadow - tons 1,548.00 76.00 in. 2,012.00 98.40 in. 5,030.00 246.00 in.
Timothy Pasture acres 4.00 4.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture - acres ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres 5.75 5.25 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Prairie Pasture - acres 2,443.00 2,645.00 de. ----- ----- ----- -----







Total 99,967.57 9,734.82 in. ----- ----- $813,705.23 $223,159.25 in.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $91,434.20.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 38.50. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 1,521; pear, 1,275; peach, 42,006; plum, 1,461; cherry, 3,042. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 23,452; pear, 647; peach, 70,843; plum, 3,030; cherry, 5,487.

Herd Law. - The herd law put in force in this county in June, 1875, but practically in operation for two years before that time. Public sentiment is generally favorable to the law, and our correspondent says the county could not get along without it. It does not encourage fence building or hedge growing, and stimulates grain growing rather than stock raising. It is urged in favor of the law, that owing to the scarcity of fencing material, farmers would be unable to protect their crops without it, and that cattle raisers should take care of their stock and prevent their trespassing. The sentiment is so unanimous that no arguments are employed against the law.

Fences. - Stone, 971 rods; cost, $1,942. Rail, 14,779 rods; cost, $21,429.55. Board, 6,106 rods; cost, $8,792.64. Wire, 9,460 rods; cost, $7,000.40. Hedge, 44,329 rods; cost, $22,164.50. Total rods of fence, 75,645; total cost, $61,329.09.

Apiaculture. - Bees, none reported.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $53,258.

Manufactures. - Cortland township: cheese factory, capital, $1,200. Norway township: steam saw mill, capital, $2,500. Scandia township: water flouring mill, capital, $10,000.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $197,849; total assessed valuation of all property, $1,062,457; true valuation of all property, $1,770,761.67. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $70,851.58; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, 07-.

Newspaper History. - The Belleville Telescope was first issued September 20, 1870, proprietor's name not reported. It was suspended February 1, 1872, started again July 3, 1873, and has been published regularly ever since.

The Belleville Republic first issued February 7, 1872. It was sold May 6, 1874, and the office removed to Jewell Center. Re-established by the same name at Belleville, August 15, 1875. Moved to Scandia, August 16, 1876, and the name changed to the Scandia Republic. Sold to L. H. Tibbetts December 1, 1877, who changed the name to the Republic-Journal, under which name it is still continued. Both of the above named papers are Republican in politics.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 104; school population, 3,753; average salary of teachers, per month, males, $28.31; females, $22.11. School houses built during 1878, frame, 7. Total number of school houses, 97; log, 9; frame, 70; brick 3; stone, 15. Value of all school property, $46,835. School grounds are not as yet ornamented with shade trees.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 6; membership, 240. Lutheran: organizations, 1; membership, 30. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 16; membership, 337; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $3,000. Presbyterian: organizations, 4; membership, 100; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $4,000. Roman Catholic: organization, 2; membership, 250; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $300.

Transcribed from First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the Years 1877-8 embracing statistical exhibits, with diagrams of the agricultural, industrial, mercantile, and other interests of the state, together with a colored outline map of the state, and sectional maps, in colors, of each organized county, showing their relative size and location, railroads, towns, post offices, school houses, water powers, etc., etc. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Rand, McNally & Co., Printers and Engravers, Chicago. 1878. Transcribed by Jacob Conard, January 2002.


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