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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Jackson County

1878

Map of Jackson County - 1878

First settlements: Liberty township, by emigrants from Missouri, date not given; Whiting township, June, 1867, Henry Haub; Soldier township, May, 1856, Henry Rancier; Cedar township, 1857, S. J. Elliott, H. C. Jones, W. T. Pasley and others; Washington township, June, 1868, Edward McNeme. - First church buildings: Franklin township, City of Holton, Presbyterian; Cedar township, 1870, Reformed Presbyterian. - First school houses: Liberty township, 1861, by school district No. 15; Whiting township, 1870, district No. 38; Soldier township, 1861, by private enterprise, on the site of the present district school house; Cedar township, about 1860, by settlers on southeast quarter Section 33, Township 7, Range 16; Washington township, 1870, E. L. Stalker and four other settlers, without district aid. - First business established: country store, 1856, Phineas Skinner, place not stated. - First marriages: Liberty township, W. T. Wilcox and Lucretia Green, February, 1858; Washington township, Timothy Vaughn and Alice O'Brien, January 15th, 1869. - First post office: Holton, at Holton. - Whiting township was a part of the Kickapoo Reserve until 1866, when, with the remainder of the Reserve, it was purchased by the Central Branch Union Pacific Railroad Company, and opened to settlement.

The county was organized in 1857.

Population in 1860, 1,936; in 1870, 6,053; increase in ten years, 4,117; population in 1875, 6,681; increase in five years, 628; population in 1878, 7,930; increase in eighteen years, 5,994. Rural population, 6,740; city or town population, 1,190; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 85.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop.
Cedar 973 Douglas 664 Franklin 985
Grant 753 Holton City 809 Jefferson 673
Liberty 497 Netawaka 579 Straight Creek 499
Soldier 474 Washington 452 Whiting 572

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 13 per cent.; upland, 87 per cent.; forest, (Government survey) 5 per cent.; prairie, 95 per cent.; average width of bottoms, 1 mile; general surface of the country, undulating.

Timber. - Average width of timber belts, one-half mile. Varieties: white oak, walnut, hickory, black oak, cottonwood, elm, hackberry, and sycamore. No large areas of forest trees have been planted, but increased attention is being paid to that branch of husbandry. Cottonwood, soft maple, and elm are the principal varieties.

Principal Streams. - Muddy, Walnut, Little and Big Straight creeks run southeast; Elk and Bill's creeks, east; North and South Cedars, southeast to the Grasshopper river; East and West Muddy, south to Kansas river; Little Soldier, Big Soldier, Cross creek, and Little Cross creek, south to the Kansas river. The county is well supplied with springs; good well water reached at from 10 to 60 feet.

Coal. - Thin veins of coal crop out in various places along the streams, but none of consequence has been developed. Wood is cheap, and is the chief fuel used.

Building Stone, etc. - Good lime and sandstone found on almost every section.

Railroad Connections. The Kansas Central (narrow gauge) Railroad enters the county on the eastern border, and extends in a northwesterly direction to Holton, thence west through the county to Onaga, in Pottawatomie county, furnishing a direct connection with Leavenworth, and with the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad at Valley Falls.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in county, 421,120; taxable acres, 332,819; under cultivation, 96,101.16; cultivated to taxable acres, 28.87 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 7,982.16.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat 7,465.00 7,465.00 9,493.00 5,684.25 7,572.00 2,446.00 6,858.00
Rye 480.00 480.00 818.00 1,349.85 3,917.00 1,294.00 2,385.00
Spring Wheat 601.00 2,573.00 4,875.00 371.00 973.00 466.00 1,717.00
Corn 28,225.00 25,124.00 32,245.00 39,827.04 35,260.00 47,415.00 43,004.00
Barley 273.00 462.00 196.00 218.00 636.00 380.00 334.00
Oats 9,069.00 8,284.00 7,452.00 5,747.00 8,748.00 6,227.00 7,570.00
Buckwheat 287.00 174.00 108.00 798.54 89.00 58.00 46.50
Irish Potatoes 495.00 873.00 578.00 950.69 590.97 574.00 586.00
Sweet Potatoes 6.00 6.00 15.00 6.74 14.35 2.13 7.13
Sorghum 173.00 229.00 256.00 351.03 317.75 321.00 277.18
Castor Beans 0.50 1.00 1.00 13.50 24.00 145.00 10.00
Cotton ----- 0.50 1.50 ----- 19.25 0.25 -----
Flax 20.00 200.50 941.00 813.00 1,591.00 313.00 899.00
Hemp 12.00 18.00 ----- ----- 15.00 23.00 7.00
Tobacco 4.00 5.50 8.00 5.12 18.73 3.62 6.75
Broom Corn ----- ----- 56.00 62.75 74.87 71.00 29.60
Millet and Hungarian 1,221.00 1,056.00 2,122.00 4,115.50 3,943.00 4,423.00 2,972.00
Timothy Meadow 148.00 148.00 370.00 544.75 233.00 316.00 688.00
Clover Meadow 238.00 238.00 409.00 104.00 13.00 93.00 121.00
Prairie Meadow 15,078.00 15,078.00 21,700.00 23,431.00 16,648.00 16,518.00 21,959.00
Timothy Pasture 77.00 ----- 54.00 131.00 111.25 35.00 131.00
Clover Pasture 47.00 10.00 36.00 ----- ----- 78.00 46.00
Blue-Grass Pasture 90.00 90.00 179.00 311.00 104.00 129.00 156.00
Prairie Pasture 10,729.00 8,584.00 5,839.00 5,903.00 6,786.00 6,788.00 6,291.00








Total 74,738.50 71,099.50 87,752.50 90,738.76 87,699.17 88,119.00 96,101.16

Increase in six years, 29 - per cent. Average increase per annum, 4.83 - per cent.

RANK of Jackson County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.








Wheat 12 14 16 42 47 54 54
Corn 19 21 19 18 19 25 23








Total Acreage in all Crops 17 16 15 21 27 31 35

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

CROPS. ACRES IN
1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
VALUE OF
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.







Winter Wheat - bu. 6,858.00 4,412.00 in. 130,302.00 105,842.00 in. $89,908.38 $66,671.38 in.
Rye - bu. 2,385.00 1,091.00 in. 42,930.00 22,226.00 in. 12,879.00 5,632.60 in.
Spring Wheat - bu. 1,717.00 1,251.00 in. 15,453.00 7,997.00 in. 8,499.15 2,161.55 in.
Corn - bu. 43,004.00 4,411.00 de. 1,806,168.00 90,432.00 de. 343,171.92 36,148.08 de.
Barley - bu. 334.00 46.00 de. 8,684.00 436.00 de. 3,907.80 898.20 in.
Oats - bu. 7,570.00 1,343.00 in. 227,100.00 2,928.00 in. 36,336.00 1,210.20 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 46.50 11.50 de. 930.00 350.00 in. 744.00 280.00 in.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 586.00 12.00 in. 52,740.00 15,430.00 in. 21,096.00 6,886.50 de.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 7.13 5.00 in. 641.70 428.70 in. 417.11 204.11 in.
Sorghum - gall. 277.18 43.82 de. 31,875.70 5,039.30 de. 15,937.85 2,519.65 de.
Castor Beans - bu. 10.00 135.00 de. 140.00 1,310.00 de. 175.00 1,275.00 de.
Cotton - lbs. ----- .25 de. ----- 42.50 de. ----- 4.25 de.
Flax - bu. 899.00 586.00 in. 9,889.00 6,759.00 in. 9,889.00 6,602.50 in.
Hemp - lbs. 7.00 16.00 de. 6,440.00 14,720.00 de. 386.40 883.20 de.
Tobacco - lbs. 6.75 3.13 in. 4,995.00 2,316.20 in. 499.50 231.62 in.
Broom Corn - lbs. 29.60 41.40 de. 23,680.00 33,120.00 de. 888.00 1,242.00 de.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 2,972.00 1,451.00 de. 8,916.00 3,247.25 de. 35,664.00 12,989.00 de.
Timothy Meadow - tons 688.00 372.00 in. 1,032.00 558.00 in. 5,160.00 2,790.00 in.
Clover Meadow - tons 121.00 28.00 in. 205.70 47.60 in. 1,028.50 238.00 in.
Prairie Meadow - tons 21,959.00 5,441.00 in. 32,939.00 8,162.00 in. 90,582.25 22,445.50 in.
Timothy Pasture acres 131.00 96.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture - acres 46.00 32.00 de. ----- ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres 156.00 27.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Prairie Pasture - acres 6,291.00 497.00 de. ----- ----- ----- -----







Total 96,101.16 7,982.16 in. ----- ----- $677,169.86 $47,417.98 in.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $1,753; poultry and eggs, $12,301.25.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1st, 1878, 439,697 bushels, or an average of 277 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Cheese manufactured in 1875, 2,584 lbs.; in 1878, 1,702 lbs.; decrease, 882 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 222,895 lbs.; in 1878, 328,867 lbs.; increase, 105,972 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 4,445; in 1878, 4,970; increase, 525. Mules and asses, in 1877, 474; in 1878, 485; increase, 11. Milch cows, in 1877, 5,952; in 1878, 7,632; increase, 1,680. Other cattle, in 1877, 12,904; in 1878, 14,391; increase, 1,487. Sheep, in 1877, 2,033; in 1878, 3,766; increase, 1,733. Swine, in 1877, 10,050; in 1878, 19,490; increase, 9,440.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 63; value of sheep killed by dogs, $189.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 4,596 lbs.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $147,862.26.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 6.75. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 30,074 ; pear, 961: peach, 59,381; plum, 478; cherry, 10,508. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 73,942 pear, 1,267; peach, 28,602; plum, 887; cherry, 7,699.

Herd Law. - The herd law is not in force in the county, and public sentiment is decidedly against it. The opinion is that the law would stimulate the raising of grain; but that it would be an injustice to the farmers having their farms fenced, retard the raising of stock by depriving stock men of convenient grazing range, and decrease the value of property in the county by causing the stock to be sent out.

Fences. - Stone, 2,888 rods; cost, $4,332. Rail, 180,361 rods; cost, $252,505.40; Board, 56,135 rods; cost, $79,711.70. Wire, 63,580 rods; cost, $45,777.60. Hedge, 154,184 rods; cost, $77,092. Total rods of fence, 457,148; total cost, $459,418.70.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 272; pounds of honey, 4,157; wax, 86.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $49,669.

Manufactures. - Holton: steam flouring mill, capital,$5,000. Netawaka township: carriage manufactories, 2, capital, $500; wagon manufactory, capital, $275; broom factory, capital, $50. Straight Creek township: water flouring mill, capital, $2,000.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property $418,240; railroad property, $141,277.46; total assessed valuation of all property, $2,187,313.46; true valuation or all property, $3,645,522.43. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $105,443.75; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, .05 -.

Newspaper History. - The first paper published in the county was the Cricket, by Thos. G. Walters, at Holton, in the fall of 1858. The publisher had neither type nor press, but wrote the locals with pen and ink, and illustrated political events with colored pencils. The paper was published weekly for about two months.

The first press and type were brought to Holton, October, 1867, by A. W. Moore, who at once commenced the publication of the Jackson County News, a Republican seven-column paper. October 1st, 1871, Frank H. Stout became a fourth owner in the paper. He remained, however, but three months, and sold out. January 4, 1872, Geo. S. Irwin became a half owner in the News, retaining his interest until November 7, 1872. June 4, of the same year, Moore & Irwin enlarged the paper to eight columns, and changed the title to Holton News. Moore continued the publication of the paper alone from November, 1872, until February 6, 1874, when Frank A. Root purchased the good will, and consolidated it with the Express. Moore moved the printing material to Dodge City, Kansas, and issued the Messenger.

In May, 1868, a stock company was formed by members of the Democratic party, and the publication of the Jackson Democrat commenced, with T. G. Williams as editor. August, 1869, the concern was sold to J. W. Fox, who changed the named to Holton Leader, and run it as an Independent journal for about one year, and moved to St. Mary's, Kansas.

In 187-, Frank H. Stout started the Netawaka Herald. Published it until October 1st, 1871, when he sold the office to parties from Irving, Kansas, who removed it to that point.

The next newspaper venture was by Frank A. Root, April 13, 1872, who brought an office from Seneca, Kansas, to Holton, and started the Holton Express, Republican in politics. February 6, 1874, Root bought the News, and published the Express and News until March 26, 1875, when he sold the paper to Beck & Shiner.

June 4, 1872, George S. Irwin took an office to Netwaka, in Jackson county, and commenced the publication of the Netawaka Chief, a seven-column, independent Republican paper. Irwin owned the paper until September 24, 1872, when he sold the office to A. J. Best and H. D. Sprague. January, 1873, Best & Sprague sold the Chief to H. L. Roberts, who continued its publication until July 14, 1874, when he removed to Hiawatha, Brown county.

In 1871 and 1872, Ira I. Taber published the Real Estate Bulletin, a monthly, devoted to landed interests.

March 2, 1875, Shiner & Laithe brought an office to Holton and started the Recorder. Two weeks afterwards, M. M. Beck purchased the interest of Laithe. March 26, Beck & Shiner bought the Express of Root, and consolidated the two papers, under the title of Recorder and Express. January 1, 1877, the word Express was dropped from the heading, and the paper is yet published at Holton by Beck & Shiner.

April 1, 1877, J. C. Lillie took an office from Leavenworth, and started a Democratic paper called the Argus. It lived about six months, and succumbed for the want of patronage.

January 16, 1878, Messrs. Fairchild & Sargent began the publication of the Holton Signal, an eight-column Democratic paper. It is still published by the same firm.

The only daily ever published in the county was by Frank A. Root - the Daily Express - during the three days of the fair, September, 1874.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 67; school population, 3,217; average salary of teachers, per month, males, $37.84; females, $29.15. School houses built during 1878, frame, 5. Total number of school houses, 65; log, 1; frame, 57; brick, 2; stone, 5. Value of all school property, $58,487. No report of shade trees.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 2; membership, 210. Congregational: organizations, 1; membership, 9. Episcopal: organizations, 1; membership, 23; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $700. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 13; membership, 605; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $6,000. Presbyterian: organizations, 3; membership, 170; church edifices, 3; value of church property, $5,800. Roman Catholic: organizations, 4; membership, 400; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $800.

Transcribed from First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the Years 1877-8 embracing statistical exhibits, with diagrams of the agricultural, industrial, mercantile, and other interests of the state, together with a colored outline map of the state, and sectional maps, in colors, of each organizaed county, showing their relative size and location, railroads, towns, post offices, school houses, water powers, etc., etc. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Rand, McNally & Co., Printers and Engravers, Chicago. 1878. Transcribed by Aireanne Smith and Laura Kaufmann, October, 2001.


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