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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Ellsworth County

1878

Map of Ellsworth County - 1878

Population in 1870, 1,185; in 1875, 1,758; increase in five years, 573; population in 1878, 5,057; increase in eight years, 3,872. Rural population, 3,793; city or town population, 1,264; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 75.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop.
Columbia 570 Empire 1,874 Ellsworth 895
Valley 826 Wilson 892 ----- -----

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 8 per cent.; upland, 92 per cent.; forest (Government survey), 1 per cent., prairie, 99 per cent. Width of bottoms, from one-fourth to one mile; general surface of the country, undulating; some portions bluffy.

Timber. - The very limited amount of timber is confined to the streams. Varieties: oak, ash, elm, hackberry, walnut and box elder; on the Smoky Hill, generally cottonwood.

Principal Streams. - The Smoky Hill river, running a little south of east through the county, with its tributaries, Mule, Bluff, Turkey, Thompson's, Ash, Oxhide, Blood and other creeks from the south; Wilson, Buffalo, Oak, Clear, Elm and others from the north. The county is well supplied with springs; good well water reached at from 20 to 60 feet.

Coal. - Prof. B. F. Mudge states that coal is found in the southwest part of the county, in one or two townships, near the surface, in veins from 20 to 30 inches in thickness. Very little has been mined. It is of poor quality; lignite. H. Inman states that coal has been mined in Township 14, Range 9 west, in veins from seven inches to two feet in thickness, and at a depth of 45 feet below the surface; also, in Town 3, Range 10 west, at a depth of 200 feet, in a vein of from two to three feet in thickness. It is not now mined in either of the above places.

Building Stone, etc. - There is plenty of magnesian limestone in the northern tier of townships, and some in the south half of the county; quality, rather poor. A town has been established in the county, called Terra Cotta, so named from the fact that pottery clay and glass and fire sand have been discovered in that vicinity. Over 400 tons of the glass and fire sand have been shipped to the potteries of Kansas and Missouri. The pottery clay is said to be of the finest quality, sells readily for $10 a ton, and is shipped as far east as Ohio.

Railroad Connections. - The Kansas Pacific Railway runs through the county from east to west, following the line of the Smoky Hill. Principal station: Ellsworth.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 460,800; taxable acres, 84,416; under cultivation, 37,320.16; cultivated to taxable acres, 44.21 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the, year, 14,191.53.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat 67.00 67.00 189.00 964.00 3,032.00 6,565.00 12,531.00
Rye 159.00 127.00 246.00 809.00 1,540.00 1,528.00 1,540.00
Spring Wheat 225.00 211.00 832.00 1,195.50 1,660.00 1,632.00 5,626.00
Corn 1,955.00 1,740.00 3,566.00 3,205.00 3,279.00 7,185.00 11,621.00
Barley ----- 13.00 15.00 304.50 617.00 617.00 631.00
Oats 388.00 239.00 506.00 771.50 884.00 850.00 1,709.00
Buckwheat ----- 4.00 5.00 16.50 50.00 5.00 7.00
Irish Potatoes 109.00 106.00 158.00 51.37 190.50 203.00 342.00
Sweet Potatoes 1.00 ----- 6.00 0.81 1.38 2.63 4.00
Sorghum 1.50 9.00 15.00 44.00 29.25 138.00 68.16
Castor Beans ----- 2.00 ----- 0.06 3.00 56.00 -----
Cotton ----- ----- 0.25 ----- ----- ----- -----
Flax ----- 10.00 1.00 234.52 43.00 1.00 14.00
Hemp ----- ----- 0.50 ----- ----- ----- -----
Tobacco ----- ----- ----- ----- 0.50 0.75 -----
Broom Corn ----- ----- 129.00 163.00 592.25 238.00 302.00
Millet and Hungarian 415.00 460.00 577.00 1,595.50 1,404.00 3,796.00 2,437.00
Timothy Meadow ----- ----- 6.00 ----- 2.00 4.50 -----
Clover Meadow ----- ----- 2.00 ----- 1.00 ----- 3.00
Prairie Meadow 2,403.00 120.00 397.00 ----- ----- ----- 10.00
Timothy Pasture ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- 2.50 -----
Blue-Grass Pasture ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- 0.25 -----
Prairie Pasture 273.00 786.00 315.00 455.00 478.00 304.00 475.00








Total 5,996.50 3,894.00 6,965.75 9,810.26 13,806.88 23,128.63 37,320.16

Increase in six years, 522 + per cent.
Average increase per annum, 87 + per cent.

RANK of Ellsworth County in the Crops named below as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.








Wheat 54 55 59 55 53 42 36
Corn 57 57 61 61 62 61 57








Total Acreage in all Crops 54 58 60 61 62 61 61

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

CROPS. ACRES IN
1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
VALUE OF
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.







Winter Wheat - bu. 12,531.00 5,966.00 in. 275,682.00 157,512.00 in. $157,138.74 $46,694.24 in.
Rye - bu. 1,540.00 12.00 in. 32,340.00 1780.00 in. 9,702.00 77.20 de.
Spring Wheat - bu. 5,626.00 3,994.00 in. 61,886.00 32,510.00 in. 29,705.28 6,204.48 in.
Corn - bu. 11,621.00 4,436.00 in. 406,735.00 191,185.00 in. 122,020.50 78,910.50 in.
Barley - bu. 631.00 14.00 in. 19,561.00 1,051.00 in. 5,868.30 315.30 in.
Oats - bu. 1,709.00 859.00 in. 59,815.00 30,065.00 in. 11,963.00 6,905.50 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 7.00 2.00 in. 126.00 76.00 in. 100.80 60.80 in.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 342.00 139.00 in. 34,200.00 22,020.00 in. 10,260.00 516.00 in.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 4.00 1.37 in. 480.00 282.75 in. 480.00 243.30 in.
Sorghum - gall. 68.16 69.84 de. 7,838.40 8,031.60 de. 3,919.20 4,015.80 de.
Castor Beans - bu. ----- 56.00 de. ----- 448.00 de. ----- 448.00 de.
Cotton - lbs. ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Flax - bu. 14.00 13.00 in. 140.00 132.00 in. 140.00 131.60 in.
Hemp - lbs. ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Tobacco - lbs. ----- .75 de. ----- 555.00 de. ----- 55.50 de.
Broom Corn - lbs. 302.00 64.00 in. 234,050.00 43,650.00 in. 8,776.88 1,636.88 in.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 2,437.00 1,359.00 de. 7,311.00 1,230.00 de. 31,071.75 5,227.50 de.
Timothy Meadow - tons ----- 4.50 de. ----- 4.50 de. ----- 22.50 de.
Clover Meadow - tons 3.00 3.00 in. 5.25 5.25 in. 23.62 23.62 in.
Prairie Meadow - tons 10.00 10.00 in. 15.00 15.00 in. 45.00 45.00 in.
Timothy Pasture acres ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture - acres ----- 2.50 de. ----- ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres ----- .25 de. ----- ----- ----- -----
Prairie Pasture - acres 475.00 171.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----







Total 37,320.16 14,191.53 in. ----- ----- $391,215.07 $131,840.72 in.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $691; poultry and eggs, $1,442.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1st, 1878, 39,569 bushels, or an average of 39 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Cheese manufactured in 1875, 5,650 lbs.; in 1878, 1,320 lbs.; decrease, 4,350 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875 32,211 lbs.; in 1878, 39,554 lbs.; increase, 7,343 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 1,197; in 1878, 1,665; increase, 468. Mules and asses, in 1877, 104; in 1878, 193; increase, 89. Milch cows, in 1877, 1,103; in 1878, 1,207; increase, 104. Other cattle, in 1877, 3,517; in 1878, 5,998; increase, 2,481. Sheep, in 1877, 4,766; in 1878, 4,820; increase, 54. Swine, in 1877, 1,467; in 1878, 3,362; increase, 1,895.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 35; value of sheep killed by dogs, $105.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 13,668.50 lbs.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $27,112.22.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 17. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 57; peach, 3,609; plum, 29; cherry, 106. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 3,173; pear, 451; peach, 18,150; plum, 1,041; cherry, 657.

Herd Law. - The herd law has been in force in the whole county since May, 1875, and it has had a most beneficial effect; it has built up a grain and domestic stock trade, and has brought peace and prosperity to the county. "May it be the rule all over the State."

Fences. - Stone, 1,620 rods; cost, $2,835. Rail, 3,410 rods; cost, $5,115. Board, 656 rods; cost, $957.76. Wire, 2,244 rods; cost, $1,947.88. Hedge, 2,520 rods; cost, $1,764. Total rods of fence, 10,450; total cost, $12,619.64.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 1.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $33,865.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $174,780; railroad property, $299,980.50; total assessed valuation of all property, $834,803.20; true valuation of all property, $1,390,505.33. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, 65,523.12; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, .08 -.

Manufactures. - Ellsworth township: steam flouring mill, capital, $7,000. Wilson township: cheese factory.

Newspaper History. - The Ellsworth Advertiser was commenced by B. R. Wilson and E. F. Campbell in the winter of 1876, and its publication continued for two months.

In April, 1868, P. H. Hubbell started the Ellsworth Advocate, which existed for six months.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 41; school population, 1,775; average salary of teachers, per month, males, $31.20; females, $23.48. School houses built during 1878, frame, 1. Total number of school houses, 25; frame, 16; brick, 1; stone, 8. Value of all school property, $25,554. No shade trees reported.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 1; membership, 75. Episcopal: membership, 8; value of church property, $500. Lutheran: organizations, 2; membership, 100; church edifices, 1; value of church property $2,000. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 7; membership, 112; value of church property, $600. Presbyterian: organizations, 3; membership, 75. Roman Catholic: organizations, 3; membership, 300; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $1,000.

Transcribed from First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the Years 1877-8 embracing statistical exhibits, with diagrams of the agricultural, industrial, mercantile, and other interests of the state, together with a colored outline map of the state, and sectional maps, in colors, of each organizaed county, showing their relative size and location, railroads, towns, post offices, school houses, water powers, etc., etc. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Rand, McNally & Co., Printers and Engravers, Chicago. 1878. Transcribed October, 2001.


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