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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Edwards County

1878

Map of Edwards County - 1878

First settlements: March, 1873, "Massachusetts Colony," from Boston, and immigrants from Illinois. - First church edifice: Kinsley, 1874-5, Congregational; first school house: Kinsley, 1876-7, by district No. 1. - First marriage: Wm. Emerson and Nellie Chase, April 11, 1874. - First birth: a daughter to Simon Cass, name not known, August, 1873. - First business established: lumber yard, March, 1873, E. K. Smart; general store, April, 1873, T. L. Rodgers, both at Kinsley. - First post office: Peters (now Kinsley), May, 1873, N. C. Bolles, postmaster. - Edwards county was created out of thirteen unattached townships southwest of Pawnee county and one tier of townships south. In 1875 the limits of the county were extended by the Legislature, so that it now contains twenty-seven congressional townships. The real growth of the county began in 1876. It has three railroad stations - Kinsley, Offerle and Nettleton.

The county was organized in 1874.

Population in 1875, 234; population in 1878, 1,700; increase in three years, 1,466. Rural population, 1,275; city or town population, 425; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 75.

* POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop.
Kinsley 1,139 Trenton 561    

Face of the Country. - The Arkansas river bottom is about three miles wide. The rest of the country is upland rolling prairie.

Timber. - None worth mention. The growth of artificial timber has only been promoted to a very limited degree, considering the quantity of land taken under the timber culture act. Of the varieties planted, cottonwood comprises the larger part, with some black walnut, willow and box elder.

Principal Streams. - The Arkansas river runs through the northwestern portion of the county in a northeasterly direction. Big Coon creek, containing water most of the year, empties into the Arkansas on the north.

Coal. - None has been discovered.

Building Stone. - Common limestone has been found in different parts of the county, and sandstone in some localities.

Railroad Connections. - The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad runs across the northwest corner of the county. Principal station, Kinsley.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 622,080; taxable acres, 147,801; under cultivation, 9,481.25; cultivated to taxable acres, 6.41 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 5,539.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $470; poultry and eggs, $444.

** STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS.1872.1873.1874.1875.1876.1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat       202.00 524.00 704.00 2,205.00
Rye       13.00 53.00 30.00 66.00
Spring Wheat       4.50 39.00 283.00 1,460.00
Corn       855.00 1,229.00 1,770.00 2,908.00
Barley       46.50 158.00 529.00 1,273.00
Oats       39.50 65.00 148.00 504.00
Buckwheat         1.00 11.25 9.50
Irish Potatoes       0.50 15.75 26.00 111.00
Sweet Potatoes       5.00 16.13 36.00 60.00
Sorghum       0.50   41.00 73.75
Castor Beans         16.00 16.00  
Cotton              
Flax         1.00 3.00 31.00
Hemp              
Tobacco         0.13   1.00
Broom Corn         2.25 32.00 47.00
Millet and Hungarian         21.50 123.00 724.00
Timothy Meadow             6.00
Clover Meadow             2.00
Prairie Meadow           80.00  
Timothy Pasture              
Clover Pasture              
Blue-Grass Pasture              
Prairie Pasture           110.00  








Total       1,166.50 2,143.76 6,942.25 9,481.25

Increase in three years, 712+ per cent.
Average increase per annum, 237.33+ per cent.

** RANK of Edwards County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS.1872.1873.1874.1875.1876.1877. 1878.








NEED CHART!







STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

CROPS.ACRES IN
1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
VALUE OF
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.







Winter Wheat 2,205.00 1,501.00 in 52,920.00 38,840.00 in $33,868.80 $21,900.80 in
Rye 66.00 36.00 in 1,452.00 792.00 in 435.60 204.60 in
Spring Wheat 1,460.00 1,177.00 in 24,820.00 19,443.00 in 13,402.00 9,101.20 in
Corn 2,908.00 1,138.00 in 43,620.00 2,910.00 in 15,267.00 1,018.50 in
Barley 1,273.00 744.00 in 48,374.00 30,917.00 in 18,865.86 13,628.76 in
Oats 504.00 356.00 in 24,696.00 18,776.00 in 6,667.92 4,605.92 in
Buckwheat 9.50 1.75 de 133.00 13.25 de 106.40 10.60 de
Irish Potatoes 111.00 85.00 in 8,880.00 7,580.00 in 4,440.00 3,270.00 in
Sweet Potatoes 60.00 24.00 in 6,000.00 3,300.00 in 6,000.00 3,300.00 in
Sorghum 73.75 32.00 in 8,481.25 3,766.25 in 4,240.63 1,883.13 in
Castor Beans   16.00 de   128.00 de   128.00 de
Cotton            
Flax 31.00 28.00 in 310.00 286.00 in 310.00 284.80 in
Hemp            
Tobacco 1.00 1.00 in 740.00 740.00 in 74.00 74.00 in
Broom Corn 47.00 15.00 in 35,250.00 9,650.00 in 1,321.88 361.88 in
Millet and Hungarian 724.00 601.00 in 2,172.00 1,803.00 in 9,774.00 8,113.50 in
Timothy Meadow 6.00 6.00 in 9.00 9.00 in 40.50 40.50 in
Clover Meadow 2.00 2.00 in 3.50 3.50 in 15.75 15.75 in
Praire Meadow   80.00 de   96.00 de   384.00 de
Timothy Pasture            
Clover Pasture            
Blue-Grass Pasture            
Prairie Pasture   110.00 de        








Total 9,481.25 5,539.00 in     $114,831.14 $67,280.74 in

LARGE YIELDS. - J. T. Carter, of Nettleton, reports the following:

Wheat Crop. - In latter part of August, 1877, I sowed broadcast, and harrowed in, 16 1/2 acres of Red May wheat. Soil was second bottom. Crop was harvested in June and July, and yielded 39 bushels per acre. Location of this field was Section 6, Town 24, Range 18.

Itemized cost of crop, as follows:

Seed, 25 bushels @ 80 cents per bushel $20.00
Plowing, seeding and harrowing, $2.60 per acre 42.90
Harvesting, $1.50 per acre 24.75
Stacking, 75 cents per acre 12.38
Threshing, 6 cents per bushel 38.61
 
Total cost $138.64

Crop sold for $378.78; net profit, $240.14.

I raised from the same tract of land, in the season of 1876-7, of the same variety of wheat, an average of 39 1/2 bushels per acre. The wheat was, in part, shipped to Kansas City, and this year graded No. 2, in that market.

Report of Geo. B. Ketchum, of Kinsley:

Potatoes. - Section 18, Town 24, Range 19. By measurement, I planted 135 rods of the Ohio early variety, on April 15th, 1878, and harvested same, first week in July. The soil was upland prairie. Total crop on 135 rods was 302 bushels by measure. Cultivated with wheel cultivator three times, and hand-hoed once, making entire cost as follows:

Plowing and harrowing $3.00
Planting and covering with plow 3.00
Cultivating and hoeing 5.00
Harvesting and putting in cellar 10.00
Seed and cutting 6.00
 
Total cost $27.O0

Crop, 302 bushels @ 50 cents $151.00
Less cost of producing 27.00
 
  $124.00

The above land was in broom corn in 1877.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1st, 1878, 2,755 bushels, or an average of 8 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Butter manufactured in 1875, 830 lbs.; in 1878, 8,933 lbs.; increase, 8,103 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 187; in 1878, 353; increase, 166. Mules and asses, in 1877, 28; in 1878, 87; increase, 59. Milch cows, in 1877, 131; in 1878, 244; increase, 113. Other cattle, in 1877, 311; in 1878, 447; increase, 136. Sheep, in 1877, 857; in 1878, 426; decrease, 431. Swine, in 1877, 224; in 1878, 432; increase, 208.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - None reported.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, none reported.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $4,121.55.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, .50. Number of trees in bearing: peach, 20. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 2,265; pear, 321; peach, 4,101; plum, 1,988; cherry, 209.

Herd Law. - The herd law has been in force throughout the county since February, 1875. Public sentiment is strongly in its favor. It does not appear to have any effect upon fencing, but hedge growing is carried on for general improvement and convenience. It stimulates grain growing. The argument in its favor is that it requires each man to look after his own stock, and affords the remainder of the community security in raising produce in a country where timber is scarce and fencing high.

Fences. - Stone, no report. Rail, no report. Board, no report. Wire, 680 rods; cost, $544. Hedge, 2,502 rods; cost, $1,751.40. Total rods of fence, 3,182; total cost, $2,295.40.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 1.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $9,595.

Manufactures. - None reported.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $55,781.08; railroad property, $129,292; total assessed valuation of all property, $507,251.43 true valuation of all property, $845,419.05. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $26,051.78; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, .05+.

Newspaper History. - The first number of the Kinsley Reporter was issued September 16, 1873. It was a monthly publication, and continued as such for six months, when it was changed to a fortnightly, and afterwards, January, 1875, to a weekly publication. It was continued as a weekly until January 18, 1877, when it passed into the hands of W. T. Bruer, and was absorbed by the Edwards County Leader.

The first number of the Leader was issued March 29, 1877, and still continues; W. T. Bruer, editor and proprietor. It is Republican in politics.

The Valley Republican was started at Kinsley, by M. M. Lewis, November 3, 1877. May 4, 1878, the name was changed to the Kinsley Graphic; W. R. Davis, proprietor, and M. M. Lewis, editor. It is Republican in politics.

The Staats Zeitung, German, was started by Dr. L. Rick, at Kinsley, July 13, 1878, and is still published.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 13; school population, 471; average salary of teachers, per month, males, $28.37; females, $22.00. School houses built during 1878, frame, 5. Total number of school houses, 7; frame, 6; brick, 1. Value of all school property, $11,785. No shade trees reported.

Churches. - Baptist: membership, 50. Congregational: organizations, 1; membership, 16; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $2,000. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 4; membership, 100. Presbyterian: organizations, 3; membership, 100. Roman Catholic: organizations, 3; membership, 500; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $1,000.

* Brown and Jackson townships have been organized since census was taken.
** The county was organized in 1874. No returns for that year.

Transcribed from First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the Years 1877-8 embracing statistical exhibits, with diagrams of the agricultural, industrial, mercantile, and other interests of the state, together with a colored outline map of the state, and sectional maps, in colors, of each organizaed county, showing their relative size and location, railroads, towns, post offices, school houses, water powers, etc., etc. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Rand, McNally & Co., Printers and Engravers, Chicago. 1878. Transcribed by George Wray, September 17, 2001.


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