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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Crawford County

1878

Map of Crawford County - 1878

First settlements: Crawford township, on Big Cow creek, 1861, W. Banks; in Girard, April, 1868, Dr. Charles Strong; Osage township, August, 1865; Sheridan township, summer of 1865, J. F. Gates, Stephen Ogden, W. J. McWirt, John Hamilton, and others; Washington township, fall of 1866; Grant township, 1866; Lincoln township, 1840, by the Cherokee Indians, and in 1852 by the whites - the Hathaways, Coonrods, Gallia, Howard, Fowler, Markmans, Hale and others; Sherman township, 1850, Harden Matthews; Walnut township, 1857. - First churches erected: Crawford township, Girard, Presbyterian, 1870; Sheridan township, Monmouth, Presbyterian, 1873; Cherokee City, 1874, Methodist - at that place there is now one Christian and one Baptist church; Washington township, Mulberry Grove, Methodist, fall of 1871; Grant township, Catholic, 1868; Walnut township, Walnut Station, Catholic, 1872. School houses are generally used for religious services throughout the county. - First school houses: Crawford township, on Cow creek, a log house, by district No. 36, since replaced by a frame; Osage township, April, 1870, district No. 55 - the first school was opened in November, 1867, by Miss Florence Ives, in a private residence; Sheridan township, 1867, by J. W. McWirt, John Hamilton, and others; Washington township, by district No. 35; Grant township, 1868, district No. 40, a log house, since replaced by a frame; Lincoln township, in 1858 - the first school was held in a small log house, formerly occupied as a dwelling, in the northeast part of the township, the settlers joining to defray the expenses; Sherman township, 1870, district No. 12; Walnut township, 1868, district No. 52 - the settlers hauled the logs, and the windows and shingles were brought from Kansas City. - First business establishments: Crawford township, Crawfordsville, 1868, general merchandise, Percy Daniels; the same year, in Girard, J. N. Sinnet; Lincoln township, Arcadia, 1844, blacksmithing, James Hathaway; the inhabitants were generally engaged in stock raising. - First marriages: Crawford township, Homer Howell and Mrs. Rachel Turney; Osage township, Mr. Phillips and Miss Margraves; Sheridan township, William Lamb and Miss Collins, 1867: Washington township, Thomas Gaskins and Mary Craven, spring of 1868; Lincoln township, Crit. Burton and Pauline Gray; Sherman township, William D. Mance and Jane Williams, December 12, 1867; Walnut township, John McNeary and Susan Sullivan, 1860. - First births: Crawford township, Elizabeth Terrell, January, 1868; Osage township, Ida L. Collins; Sheridan township, Mary Painter, June, 1866; Washington township, Rockie Anna Smilie, January 12, 1867; Lincoln township, Louis Fowler, February 10, 1863; Sherman township, Clay Simons, October 20, 1864; Walnut township, John Leman, 1859. - First post offices: Crawford township, Crawfordsville, 1868, W. W. Jones, postmaster; Osage township, Mount Carmel, H. Townley, postmaster; Sheridan township, Monmouth, Lafayette Manlove, postmaster; Washington township, Mulberry Grove, spring of 1869, Wm. H. Myers, postmaster; Grant township, Idell, C. W. McCloud, postmaster; Lincoln township, Cato, September 22, 1866, G. W. Fowler, postmaster; Sherman township, Farlington, 1873, E. D. Farley, postmaster. - A man by the name of John Lemans, a blacksmith, settled in Osage Township, in 1848, and resided there until the summer of 1861, when he was "run off" by a squad of U. S. troops, under the command of the agent of the Cherokee Indians. His house was burned, with nearly all of its contents. - The first orchard in Sheridan township, was planted by Mr. Scott, on Thunderbolt creek, in 1865. - The first house in the town of Cherokee, was built by William Sharp, in 1870, and used as a dry goods store. - The first election in Washington township was held in the fall of 1867, and seven votes were polled. - In 1861, Captain Rodgers was killed by guerrillas at Cato, Lincoln township, where he established the first business house in 1858. - In Sherman township, Clay Simons was killed by rebel bushwhackers, October 21, 1864. His wife had recently been confined, her child being but twenty-four hours old; she left her bed and brought her husband into the house from the yard where he had been shot. The child was named after his dead father.

Crawford county was organized in 1867.

Population in 1870, 8,160; in 1875, 9,386; increase in five years, 1,226; population in 1878, 12,759; increase in eight years, 4,599. Rural population, 10,092; city or town population, 2,667; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 79.10.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop.
Baker 1,623 Crawford 2,352 Grant 877
Lincoln 1,929 Osage 1,385 Sherman 650
Sheridan 2,030 Walnut 977 Washington 936

Face of the Country. - Bottom lands, 15 per cent.; upland, 85 per cent.; forest, (Government survey), 10 per cent.; prairie, 90 per cent. Average width of bottoms, from one-half to one mile; general surface of the country, undulating.

Timber. - Average width of timber belts, one-half mile. Varieties: black and red oak, hickory, walnut, hackberry, cottonwood, elm, post oak, burr oak, poplar. Artificial timber is grown successfully, but in small amounts, estimated at about one acre in a thousand. The principal varieties are cottonwood, soft maple and black walnut.

Principal Streams. - Lightning, Thunderbolt, Hickory, Walnut, and Limestone creeks running southwest, and Big, Little, and Middle Cow creeks running southeast; Pawnee, Drywood, Bone and Cox creeks running northeast. The streams running southwest and southeast are separated from those running northeast by the Ozark range. The county is not well supplied with springs, but good well water is reached at a depth of from 10 to 30 feet.

Coal. - Coal underlies the entire surface of the county, the veins ranging in thickness from five feet downwards. Quality good. The different varieties are called "black," "red," and "gray." It is in general use for domestic purposes, and considerable quantities are exported. Much of the so-called Fort Scott coal comes from this county. The zinc smelting works, established by J. Lyford, are located at New Pittsburg.

Building Stone, etc. - There is a good supply of sand and limestone, well distributed; also some slate. A good grindstone quarry has been opened in Osage township, and fire clay underlies the coal veins in the same township. Pottery clay reported abundant in Crawford township, though not utilized. Some hydraulic cement found in Washington township. Fire and pottery clay have been developed successfully near the city of Cherokee.

Railroad Connections. - The Missouri River, Fort Scott & Gulf Railroad runs through the centre of the county from north to south; principal stations: Drywood, Girard and Cherokee. The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad traverses the northwestern portion of the county, near the corner; principal stations, Hepler and Glenwood. The Joplin Railroad runs in a southeasterly direction from Girard to Joplin, Missouri.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 378,880; taxable acres, 373,165; under cultivation, 133,219.01; cultivated to taxable acres, 35.70 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 15,719.51.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat 19,617.00 19,617.00 19,579.00 19,134.00 15,737.00 2,549.00 9,840.00
Rye 192.00 192.00 566.00 179.00 184.00 66.00 112.00
Spring Wheat 18.00 59.00 14.00 3.00 14.00 95.00 26.00
Corn 29,881.00 28,895.00 31,571.00 48,025.00 48,612.00 62,534.00 58,606.00
Barley 8.00 ----- ----- 33.00 34.00 152.00 95.00
Oats 8,530.00 10,354.00 8,267.00 9,231.00 10,353.00 7,513.00 11,658.00
Buckwheat 99.00 49.00 48.00 97.50 83.75 123.00 356.00
Irish Potatoes 404.00 671.00 684.00 591.00 935.00 781.00 928.00
Sweet Potatoes 13.00 14.00 29.00 19.00 20.30 22.00 48.88
Sorghum 103.00 315.00 487.00 1,048.00 482.00 700.00 894.75
Castor Beans 1.00 85.00 272.00 2,242.00 1,898.00 6,645.00 4,431.25
Cotton 0.75 51.00 54.00 45.00 0.63 45.75 333.00
Flax 0.25 92.00 1,184.00 5,130.50 7,090.00 3,822.00 5,584.50
Hemp 0.50 ----- 53.00 ----- 0.12 0.75 28.38
Tobacco 11.00 10.00 10.00 12.00 28.00 28.00 15.63
Broom Corn ----- ----- 81.00 277.00 487.00 458.00 582.00
Millet and Hungarian 123.00 280.00 372.00 766.50 1,355.00 2,224.00 4,941.00
Timothy Meadow 253.00 253.00 372.00 163.00 202.00 217.00 387.75
Clover Meadow 192.00 192.00 312.00 87.50 121.75 66.00 94.75
Prairie Meadow 11,909.00 2,738.00 6,068.00 2,023.00 2,373.00 4,204.00 9,311.00
Timothy Pasture ----- ----- 16.00 40.00 9.00 173.00 291.00
Clover Pasture 7.00 4.00 33.00 12.00 3.00 ----- 24.00
Blue-Grass Pasture ----- ----- 161.00 125.00 66.00 95.00 604.12
Prairie Pasture 19,064.00 14,817.00 16,960.00 28,680.00 15,551.00 24,986.00 24,026.00








Total 90,426.50 78,688.00 87,193.00 117,954.00 105,639.55 117,499.50 133,219.00

Increase in six years, 47 per cent
Average increase per annum, 7.83 per cent.

RANK of Crawford County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.








Wheat 2 4 10 13 25 56 48
Corn 15 19 20 13 13 10 11








Total Acreage in all Crops 13 13 18 13 16 19 19

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $2,906.10; poultry and eggs, $5,184.20.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1, 1878, 268,208 bushels, or an average of 105 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Cheese manufactured in 1875, 4,235 lbs., in 1878, 5,260 lbs.; increase, 1,025 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 189,821 lbs.; in 1878, 270,915 lbs.; increase, 81,094 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 4,589, in 1878, 4,962; increase, 373. Mules and asses, in 1877, 877; in 1878, 1,078; increase, 201. Milch cows, in 1877, 4,071; in 1878, 3,871; decrease, 200. Other cattle, in 1877, 7,147; in 1878, 7,796; increase, 649. Sheep, in 1877, 3,514; in 1878, 4,105; increase, 591. Swine, in 1877, 12,926; in 1878, 25,019; increase, 12,093.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 58; value of sheep killed by dogs, $174.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 11,204 pounds.

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

CROPS. ACRES IN
1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
VALUE OF
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.







Winter Wheat - bu. 9,840.00 7,291.00 in. 157,440.00 137,048.00 in. $105,484.80 $85,092.80 in.
Rye - bu. 112.00 46.00 in. 1,680.00 822.00 in. 504.00 246.60 in.
Spring Wheat - bu. 26.00 69.00 de. 260.00 785.00 de. 156.00 784.50 de.
Corn - bu. 58,606.00 3,928.00 de. 1,758,180.00 555,578.00 de. 198,890.60 263,861.00 de.
Barley - bu. 95.00 57.00 de. 2,375.00 1,425.00 de. 831.25 378.75 de.
Oats - bu. 11,658.00 4,145.00 in. 454,662.00 146,629.00 in. 72,745.92 23,460.64 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 356.00 233.00 in. 6,408.00 5,178.00 in. 5,126.40 4,142.40 in.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 928.00 147.00 in. 58,464.00 19,414.00 in. 43,848.00 24,323.00 in.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 48.88 26.88 in. 4,888.00 2,138.00 in. 3,666.00 960.00 in.
Sorghum - gall. 894.75 194.75 in. 102,896.25 22,396.25 in. 51,448.13 11,198.13 in.
Castor Beans - bu. 4,431.25 2,213.75 de. 44,312.50 35,427.50 de. 55,390.63 24,349.37 de.
Cotton - lbs. 333.00 287.25 in. 56,610.00 48,832.50 in. 5,094.90 4,317.15 in.
Flax - bu. 5,584.50 1,762.50 in. 55,845.00 21,447.00 in. 55,845.00 19,727.10 in.
Hemp - lbs. 28.38 27.63 in. 26,109.60 25,419.60 in. 1,566.58 1,525.18 in.
Tobacco - lbs. 15.63 12.37 de. 11,566.25 9,153.80 de. 1,156.62 915.38 de.
Broom Corn - lbs. 582.00 124.00 in. 465,600.00 99,200.00 in. 17,460.00 3,720.00 in.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 4,941.00 2,717.00 in. 14,823.00 10,375.00 in. 59,292.00 41,500.00 in.
Timothy Meadow - tons 387.75 170.75 in. 581.62 256.12 in. 2,908.10 1,280.80 in.
Clover Meadow - tons 94.75 28.75 in. 161.07 48.87 in. 805.35 244.35 in.
Prairie Meadow - tons 9,311.00 5,107.00 in. 14,898.00 8,171.60 in. 44,694.00 24,514.80 in.
Timothy Pasture acres 291.00 118.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture - acres 24.00 24.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres 604.12 509.12 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Prairie Pasture - acres 24,026.00 960.00 de. ----- ----- ----- -----







Total 133,219.01 15,719.51 in. ----- ----- $726,914.28 $44,080.25 de.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $123,682.68.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 67.06. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 34,725; pear, 1,179; peach, 79,176; plum, 1,263; cherry, 9,998. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 113,900; pear, 6,943; peach, 21,022; plum, 2,115; cherry, 15,912.

Herd Law. - The herd law has been in operation since 1872. There is a wide diversity of opinion regarding it, but a decided majority are believed to be friendly to the law. It retards fencing, for the reason that the farmers have faith in the stability of the law, and that, therefore, fences will never be necessary. It stimulates the growth of small grains. In favor of the law it is urged that it encourages farming, as it enables men of small means, who could not afford to fence, to engage in the industry; that it tends to make settlements more compact, stock raising requiring an extensive range. It is urged in opposition, that stock raising should be encouraged by law as more profitable than grain growing.

Fences. - Stone, 3,721 rods; cost, $5,581.50. Rail, 126,282 rods; cost, $180,480.70. Board, 13,828 rods; cost, $19,857.80. Wire, 14,971 rods; cost, $10,479.70. Hedge, 376,435 rods; cost, $169,395.75. Total rods of fence, 535,237; total cost, $385,295.45.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 629, pounds of honey, 7,397; wax, 204.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $41,417.

Manufactures. - Crawford township: steam flouring mills, 2, capital invested, $20,000. Lincoln township: steam flouring mills, capital, $2,000. Sheridan: steam flouring mills, 2; capital invested, $15,000, pottery, capital, $3,000. Walnut township: steam elevator, capital, $2,000; harness manufactory, capital, $300.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $243,215.28; railroad property, $396,996.73, total assessed valuation all property, $2,115,228.65; true valuation of all property, $3,525,381.08. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $47,149.92; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, .02 +.

NEWSPAPER HISTORY. - The Girard Press was established by Warner & Wasser. November 11, 1869. It was the first paper regularly published in the county. April 16, 1868, one number of the Crawford County Times was issued by Scott & Cole. The former had been publishing the Journal at Osage Mission, and, some dissatisfaction arising, he moved to Girard, where he got out one number of the Times, as above mentioned. The difficulties having been satisfactorily adjusted, the establishment was returned to Osage Mission. The Press was regularly issued until July 14, 1871, when the establishment was burned by a mob, and nearly everything it contained destroyed. This mob violence was the outgrowth of ill-feeling occasioned by the Neutral Land troubles. Three weeks after its destruction the paper was again issued in enlarged form. June 16, 1873, A. P. Riddle purchased the interest of Dr. Warner, and the paper has since been published by the firm of Wasser & Riddle. It is Republican in politics.

The People's Vindicator was first published at Girard, July 28, 1870, by P. R. Crisp and Charles R. Lindsey. Lindsey left the establishment in October, and the paper ceased to exist in November following.

The Girard Pharos, a "Reform" paper, was established by W. K. Goode, March 12, 1873. July 16, following, C. C. Goode became a partner. In May, 1874, the paper was removed to Cherokee, in the southern part of the county, where it remained until September 2 of the same year, when it was removed to Girard. It was published a few weeks longer, when it was sold to J. F. McDowell, who removed it to Columbus, Cherokee county, where the material is used in the publication of the Courier.

The Cherokee Pharos was first published May 27, 1874, by W. K. Goode, and continued until September 2 of the same year, when the establishment was returned to Girard, from which place it had been brought.

The Cherokee Index was started June 3, 1875, by Mary A. Spring. It was a five-column quarto, Independent. July 8, 1875, H. C. Brandon was announced as editor, who was succeeded by P. J. Coston on the 29th of the same month, Mrs. Spring continuing as publisher. November 5, 1875, Coston resigned the editorship, and December 17, following, Mrs. Spring sold the establishment to G. W. B. Hoffman and John T. Metcalf, who published the paper until April, 1876, when Metcalf retired, and Hoffman converted it into a Democratic paper. He continued it until March 16, 1878, when Metcalf again became a partner. They continued the publication until September 21, 1877, when they removed the establishment to Columbus, Cherokee county, and published a Democratic paper there. The material was subsequently sold to James Wilson, who now publishes the Star, at Columbus.

The Crawford County News, "Reform," was first published at Girard, August 6, 1875, by T. P. Fulton and C. G. Covell. November 19, 1875. George W. Tipton was added to the firm, the style then being Tipton, Fulton & Covell. February 17, 1876, Fulton retired from the firm, and the paper thereafter became Democratic. March 19, 1876, Covell sold to H. C. Brandon, and the firm became Tipton & Brandon, and continued the paper until November 2, 1876, when J. W. Lamoreaux become a partner. Tipton sold his interest to Lamoreaux, March 22, 1877, who conducted the paper until June 21, 1877, when Tipton bought out Lamoreaux, and carried on the business for a time. September 27, 1877, Tipton resigned the editorial control to Jacob S. Moore, but resumed it again after the campaign. February 7, 1878, H. S. Kline and W. M. Clarke, as Kline & Clarke, purchased the paper, and Kline became editor. On April 1, following, Clarke sold out to Kline, and the latter continued the paper until July 20, 1878, when E. R. Ridgley purchased it, changed its politics to "National," but retained Kline as editor. September 5, 1878, Ridgley and Kline retired from the establishment, the former having sold it to R. T. Root, of Burlington, Iowa, who leased it to J. J. Hadley, of Wyandotte.

The Young Cherokee was at first a small amateur paper, published by two boys, named H. H. Webb and H. L. St. Clair, the first number appearing May 13, 1876. June 17, St. Clair retired, and on August 12, Webb largely increased the size of the paper. With the breaking out of the lead excitement, he removed the paper to Short Creek, and issued his first number there, May 26, 1877. Its name was soon after changed to the Mining Echo.

The Cherokee Banner was first issued October 6, 1877, by H. H. Webb. It was a five-column quarto, Republican. July 12, 1878, Sol. Smith purchased the paper, and still publishes it.

The Temperance Rural was established at Cherokee, July 4, 1878, by James F. St. Clair and Jacob S. Moore. It is a four-column quarto, devoted to the temperance work. It is still being published.

The Girard Herald, Democratic, was first published July 26, 1878, with J. W. Womack as editor. It is still published.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 102; school population, 5,526; average salary of teachers, per month, males, $33.26; females, $27.82. School houses built during 1878, frame, 5. Total number of school houses, 104; log, 2; frame, 98; brick, 1; stone, 3. Value of all school property, $67,470. A few of the school grounds are partially shaded by natural growths of timber. Most of the remaining are shaded by artificial growth.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 6; membership, 212; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $1,000. Episcopal: organization, 1; membership, 34; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $1,000. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 20; membership, 800; church edifices, 4; value of church property, $8,000. Presbyterian: organizations, 5; membership, 120; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $5,400. Roman Catholic: organizations, 3; membership, 1,000; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $1,000. Universalist: organizations, 1; membership, 9.

Transcribed from First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the Years 1877-8 embracing statistical exhibits, with diagrams of the agricultural, industrial, mercantile, and other interests of the state, together with a colored outline map of the state, and sectional maps, in colors, of each organizaed county, showing their relative size and location, railroads, towns, post offices, school houses, water powers, etc., etc. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Rand, McNally & Co., Printers and Engravers, Chicago. 1878. Transcribed by Trenton Faulkner, October, 2001.


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