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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Chautauqua County

1878

Map of Chautauqua County - 1878

First settlements: Harrison township, fall of 1869, by O. Hanson; Sedan township, Nov. 6, 1869, H. S. Holladay; Summit township, 1869, George M. Ross; Caneyville township, Dec. 1, 1869, Alexander Shawver; Salt Creek, township, July 1868, Richard Slater; Lafayette township, July 16, 1869, William H. Bowcher; Belleville township, 1869, John Sutton and John W. Morris. - The first church edifice was erected in Belleville township in 1875, by the Methodists. - The first school houses erected were as follows: Salt Creek township, district No. 38, May, 1872; Caneyville township, district No. 127, October, 1872; Summit township, district No. 159, 1872; Sedan township, district No. 45; Harrison township, district No. 122, summer of 1873; Lafayette township, district No. 88, 1870; Belleville township, (Peru) district No. 47, 1875. - First business establishments: Caneyville, general merchandise, D. A. McKee; Summit, general store, M, C. Parks and - Lowe, 1871; Sedan, general store, Capt. Farris; Harrison township, dry goods and groceries, Stephen Holroyd. - First marriages: Ebenezer Horton and Martha Starks, Salt Creek township, Feb. 14, 1869; John C. Johnson and Helena Cooley, Caneyville, July 2, 1871; J. M. Culver and C. Helms, Sedan township, Feb. 15, 1872; Hiram Winter and Mary Conklin, Harrison township, March, 1871. - First births: Abigail Slater, Salt Creek township, Feb. 20, 1869; Grundy White, Harrison township, March 9, 1870; Robert Narrow, Lafayette township, July 5, 1870. - First post-offices: Colfax, Salt Creek township, 1873, Shafer, Postmaster; Cloverdale, Caneyville township, February, 1871, Alexander Shawver, postmaster; Fulda, Summit township, 1872, M. Liebenberg, postmaster; Sedan, Sedan township, April, 1871, James Dasher, postmaster; Sumner, Harrison township, 1870, F. M. Bell, postmaster; Ozro Falls, Lafayette township, May 31, 1871, E. L. Wheeler, postmaster; Peru, Belleville township, 1870, David Clark, postmaster. - Chautauqua county was created by the division of Howard county, June 1, 1875, and Sedan was designated as the county seat. It has a good stone court house, and an excellent jail. The first settler in Harrison township, O. Hanson, moved in on a "stone-boat."

The county was organized, as above stated, June 1, 1875, having previously been a part of Howard county, which was organized in 1870.

Population in 1875, 7,417; population in 1878, 9,246; increase in three years, 1,829. Rural population, 7,905; city or town population, 1,341; per cent of rural to city or town population, 85.50.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop.
Belleville 1,027 Caneyville 695 Center 574
Harrison 637 Hendricks 802 Jefferson 869
Little Caney 752 Lafayette 697 Salt Creek 725
Summit 585 Sedan 1,066 Washington 817

Face of the Country. - Bottom land 25 per cent.; 8 per cent. of timber, and the remainder upland prairie. Rather level in the northern portion, but generally the surface is undulating and somewhat broken.

Timber. - Artificial timber is grown only to a limited extent, the acreage reported being: cottonwood, 17; other varieties, 11. Natural groves cover the hills and line the streams, and there is plenty of native timber for present use. Cultivated trees grow rapidly.

Principal Streams. - Big Caney and Middle Caney Creeks, each with numerous small tributaries; Salt Creek flows easterly through the northeast corner of the county; the general direction of the streams is from northwest to southeast. The county is well watered. There is also a great profusion of excellent springs. Good well water obtained at a depth of from 15 to 20 feet.

Coal. - A small quantity of surface coal has been developed, but not in paying quantities.

Building Stone, etc. - Both sand and limestone in inexhaustible quantities and of good quality abound generally throughout the county. Pottery clay reported in Salt Creek township, and fire clay in Sedan township; the latter has been utilized to some extent. Lead has been discovered in small quantities in Belleville township, and two shafts were being sunk at the date of our report.

Railroad Connections. - There are no railroads in the county.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 416,640; taxable acres, 179,108; under cultivation, 58,354.56; cultivated to taxable acres, 32.58 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 4,776.31.

YIELD, 1878. - Statement of J. T. Reagan, of Mt. Vernon:

Winter Wheat. - Walker variety, grown on section 2, township 32, range 12. Twelve acres sown Oct. 7. Soil was bottom land. I stirred the ground in June and again in September. The wheat was sown broadcast, and harrowed once. The grain was harvested June 10, and yielded 31 bushels per acre. Cost of producing the crop, $5.30 per acre.

Frank Floyd reports the following:

Corn. - On section 10, township 34, range 12, I raised ten acres of Bloody Butcher corn, which yielded 60 bushels per acre. Soil was bottom and sandy loam. Corn was planted April 2, 1878; cultivated by plowing three times with a two horse cultivator. Crop was gathered Oct. 20. Cost of producing crop, $3.70 per acre.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $1,209.50; poultry and eggs, $3,065.15.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1, 1878, 104,107 bushels, or an average of 56 bushels to the family.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS.1872.1873.1874.1875.1876.1877. 1878.








Winter Wheat       6,474.00 12,380.00 11,532.00 13,354.00
Rye       247.25 426.00 194.00 294.00
Spring Wheat       19.50 47.00 14.00 15.00
Corn       27,070.00 21,627.00 30,942.00 31,201.00
Barley       2.00 31.00 32.00 8.00
Oats       654.75 1,993.00 1,066.00 1,750.00
Buckwheat       12.25 28.25 19.00 13.50
Irish Potatoes       385.57 580.68 398.00 483.00
Sweet Potatoes       57.50 35.00 55.75 69.60
Sorghum       690.00 306.00 418.00 430.20
Castor Beans       104.12 3.50 4.50 10.00
Cotton       364.29 74.00 51.75 1.00
Flax       81.00 196.50 109.00 51.00
Hemp       0.75 14.00   0.50
Tobacco       11.12 13.75 41.00 15.63
Broom Corn       54.55 85.00 162.00 18.50
Millet and Hungarian       590.25 1,402.00 3,681.00 4,301.00
Timothy Meadow       42.50 68.00 139.00 135.38
Clover Meadow       225.49 18.00 29.00 14.00
Prairie Meadow       9,244.92 2,874.00 2,606.00 2,107.00
Timothy Pasture       2.00 346.00 2.00  
Clover Pasture       3.50 1.00 1.75 6.00
Blue-Grass Pasture       129.50 0.75 79.50 87.25
Prairie Pasture       9,305.69 4,792.00 2,001.00 3,989.00








Total       55,772.50 47,342.43 53,578.25 58,354.56

Increase in three years, 1+ per cent.
Average increase per annum, 33+ per cent.

RANK of Chautauqua County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS.1872.1873.1874.1875.1876.1877. 1878.








Wheat ----- ----- ----- 38 30 30 42
Corn ----- ----- ----- 28 38 40 38








Total Acreage In All Crops ----- ----- ----- 43 47 47 50

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

CROPS.ACRES IN
1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
VALUE OF
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.







Winter Wheat - bu. 13,354.00 1,822.00 in. 186,956.00 60,104.00 in. $99,086.68 $21,422.72 de.
Rye - bu. 294.00 100.00 in. 4,704.00 1,794.00 in. 1,411.20 771.00 in.
Spring Wheat - bu. 15.00 1.00 in. 180.00 40.00 in. 90.00 29.00 de.
Corn - bu. 31,201.00 259.00 in. 936,030.00 85,056.00 de. 187,206.00 3,410.52 in.
Barley - bu. 8.00 24.00 de. 120.00 616.00 de. 48.00 165.44 de.
Oats - bu. 1,750.00 684.00 in. 70,000.00 25,228.00 in. 13,300.00 6,136.48 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 13.50 5.50 de. 270.00 34.00 de. 216.00 27.20 de.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 483.00 85.00 in. 33,810.00 9,930.00 in. 20,962.00 7,828.20 in.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 69.60 13.85 in. 6,960.00 8.75 de. 6,124.80 147.08 de.
Sorghum - gall. 430.20 12.20 in. 49,473.00 1,403.00 in. 24,736.50 701.50 in.
Castor Beans - bu. 10.00 5.50 in. 80.00 35.00 in. 100.00 55.00 in.
Cotton - lbs. 1.00 50.75 de. 170.00 8,627.50 de. 15.30 864.45 de.
Flax - bu. 51.00 58.00 de. 510.00 689.00 de. 510.00 748.95 de.
Hemp - lbs. 0.50 0.50 in. 460.00 460.00 in. 27.60 27.60 in.
Tobacco - lbs. 15.63 25.37 de. 11,566.20 18,773.80 de. 1,156.62 1,877.38 de.
Broom Corn - lbs. 18.50 143.50 de. 14,800.00 114,800.00 de. 555.00 4,305.00 de.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 4,301.00 620.00 in. 12,903.00 3,700.50 in. 48,386.25 13,876.87 in.
Timothy Meadow - tons 135.38 3.62 de. 203.07 5.43 de. 913.81 24.44 de.
Clover Meadow - tons 14.00 15.00 de. 21.00 22.50 de. 94.50 101.25 de.
Prairie Meadow - tons 2,107.00 499.00 de. 3,161.00 748.00 de. 8,692.75 2,057.00 de.
Timothy Pasture acres ----- 2.00 de. ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture - acres 6.00 4.25 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres 87.25 7.75 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Prairie Pasture - acres 3,989.00 1,988.00 in ----- ----- ----- -----







Total 58,354.56 4,776.31 in. ----- ----- $413,627.21 $1,031.26 in.

Dairy Products. - Cheese manufactured in 1875, 620 lbs.; in 1878, 3,090 lbs.; increase, 2,470 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 159,427 lbs.; in 1878, 196,278 lbs.; increase, 36,851 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 3,067; in 1878, 3,467; increase, 400. Mules and asses, in 1877, 532; in 1878, 628; increase, 96. Milch cows, in 1877, 4,472; in 1878, 5,065; increase, 593. Other cattle, in 1877, 11,582; in 1878, 12,734; increase 1,152. Sheep, in 1877, 3,959; in 1878, 3,350; decrease; 609. Swine, in 1877, 12,860; in 1878, 16,518; increase, 3,658.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 141; value of sheep killed by dogs, $423.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 8,399 lbs.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $84,309.24.*

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 448.22. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 8,550; pear, 140; peach, 114,671; plum, 1,578; cherry, 2,068. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 46,716; pear, 1,344; peach, 51,858; plum, 3,109; cherry, 8,548.

Herd Law. - The herd law is not in operation. Our report says: "The herd law is in operation in counties east and west of this county, giving the people a practical test of its operation, in consequence of which it is decidedly not wanted for Chautauqua county." It is urged that while it saves the expense of fencing and stimulates the raising of small grain for shipment, it practically prohibits the raising of stock, and does not particularly promote the growth of hedge. The absence of a herd law gives the use of the grazing lands to stock and induces capital to invest in stock-raising, thereby affording a home market, with enhanced values for surplus farm products.

Fences. - Stone, 38,485 rods; cost, $76,969. Rail, 275,004 rods; cost, $385,005.60. Board, 5,982 rods; cost, $8,614.08. Wire, 5,128 rods; cost, $3,843.44. Hedge, 84,091 rods; cost, $35,318.22. Total rods of fence, 408,690; total cost, $509,750.34.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 99; pounds of honey, 392; wax, 18.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amounts invested in agricultural implements $27,243.

Manufactures. - Belleville township: water power saw and grist mill, capital, $6,000. Caneyville township: water power flouring mill, capital, $2,500, Centre township: water power saw and grist mill, capital $500. Jefferson township: water power saw mill; grist mill; water power grist mill; water power flouring mill, capital, $2,000. Lafayette township: steam saw mill, capital, $400. Little Caney township: steam saw mills, 2; capital invested, $1,400. Sedan township: steam saw mill, capital, $600; steam saw and grist mills, 2, capital invested, $6,400; harness and saddlery manufactory, capital, $500; cabinet works, 3, capital invested, $2,000.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $277,786.35; total assessed valuation of all property, $945,907.35; true valuation of all property, $1,576,512.25. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $45,098; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, .05 -

Newspaper History. - The Wide Awake, a neutral paper, was established at Sedan June, 1874. by Joseph Mount, a mute. It was continued until September, 1875, when the publication was suspended.

The Chautauqua Journal, a Republican paper, was started at Sedan, in August, 1875, by Kelley & Turner, and is still flourishing.

The Chautauqua News, Republican, was started at Peru, in November, 1875, by Moore & Son, and is still in operation.

The Cedarvale Blade was published at Cedarvale, by Mr. Allison, commencing in October, 1876. It was afterwards sold to S. M. Jarvis, and was discontinued in December, 1877. The Blade was independent in politics.

The Cedarvale Times was started on the 24th of May, 1878, by P. H. Albright, editor and proprietor. It is still published by him.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 86; school population, 3,920; average salary of teachers, per month, male, $31.04; female, $24.50. School houses built during 1878, 9; log, 1, frame, 5; stone, 3. Total number of school houses, 80; log, 16; frame, 60; stone, 4. Value of all school property, $49,164. Some of the school houses are located in natural groves - very few of any trees of artificial growth.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 7; membership, 347. Congregational: organizations, 2; membership, 18. Episcopal: organizations, 1; membership, 10. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 25; membership, 323; church edifice, 1; value of church property, $1,800. Roman Catholic: organizations, 4; membership, 550; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $1,000.

*Estimated.

Transcribed from First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the Years 1877-8 embracing statistical exhibits, with diagrams of the agricultural, industrial, mercantile, and other interests of the state, together with a colored outline map of the state, and sectional maps, in colors, of each organizaed county, showing their relative size and location, railroads, towns, post offices, school houses, water powers, etc., etc. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Rand, McNally & Co., Printers and Engravers, Chicago. 1878. Transcribed by Cassie Carlson, September 17, 2001.


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