THE COUNTY'S RECORD - FIRST REGIMENT KANSAS VOLUNTEER INFANTRY - OUR BOYS IN THE SECOND - INDIANS IN THE FIFTH CAVALRY - THOSE WHO JOINED THE SIXTH - COLONEL WEIR'S MEN - THE ILL-FATED TWELFTH - A FIGHTING CAVALRY - THE SIXTEENTH'S ROLL OF HONOR - THE KANSAS COLORED REGIMENTS - THE BATTLES THEY FOUGHT - FIGHTING IN THE OZARKS - POWELL CLAYTON'S COMMAND - PROTECTORS OF THE SOUTHERN BORDER - WHEN COLONEL CLARKSON WAS CAPTURED - THE TWELFTH CAVALRY'S MANY BATTLES.
Wyandotte county and Wyandotte city had weathered the storm and stress of the Border warfare and the long struggle for statehood. But the end was not in sight. Peace did not come with the admission of Kansas into the Union as a Free State under the Wyandotte constitution. There were battles to be fought and won or lost before the slavery question was settled. The census of 1860 had given Wyandotte county a white population of 2,420. A few hundred more had been added - perhaps 3,500 were here - when the Civil war broke forth with all its fury. And the citizens of Wyandotte were ready. Many stanch pro-slavery men hurried across to Missouri to join the Confederate forces, but the citizens generally arrayed themselves on the side of the Union. When the call for volunteers came, sixty-seven men of Wyandotte county marched to Camp Lincoln near Leavenworth to join the First Regiment of Kansas Volunteer Infantry. From that time on men were going to war from Wyandotte and Quindaro, and from every section of the county.
THE COUNTY'S RECORD.
The records of the adjutant general's office at Topeka give Wyandotte county credit for volunteers in the Kansas regiments as follows
|Total white volunteers including a few Indians||477|
|In the Colored Regiments||483|
|Total volunteers for Wyandotte county||960|
Practically an entire regiment of soldiers from the smallest county in the then newest state in the Union! A proportion such as no other county of a corresponding population ever gave to war.
But this was not all. There were the Home Guards - a little band of brave and loyal men who stayed to guard the homes and families of the soldiers who went to the front.
Sixty-seven men from Wyandotte county were mustered into this, the first Kansas regiment. William Y. Roberts was first captain, then a major, then a colonel. George H. Chapin and Avery G. Norman served as regimental quartermasters, and Dr. George E. Boddington and Dr. Joseph Speck were regimental surgeons. Sylvester T. Smith was promoted from lieutenant to captain. Lieutenants in the different companies from Wyandotte county were John P. Alden and John W. Dyer. The latter was killed in the battle at Wilson Creek. Hubbard H. Sawyer was first a sergeant, afterwards a lieutenant. Aaron W. Merrill also was promoted while in service from sergeant to lieutenant. Others serving as sergeants were Jason Morse, Philip H. Knoblock, Theodore Bartles, Thomas Grady, Orson Bartlett. George C. Brown and Velmoor C. Clemmons were promoted from corporals to sergeants. The corporals were George Ingersoll, John Warren, George W. Garno, Dennis Costello, William Lloyd, John O'Donnell, Patrick Collins, John O'Flaherty, John Johnson, Richard Burland, and Henry J. Fairbanks. John Farrall, a corporal, died at Vicksburg of wounds received in battle. Valentine Reichnecker and John Moody were musicians. The privates from Wyandotte county were Jacob Arnold, Joel Armes, Henry Boyle, Cyrus Bowman, William S. Camps, William J. Carlisle, Daniel Collins, Henry Cooper, Joy Casey, Dewitt C. Dennison, Daniel Donahue, Daniel Emmons, David Flemming, Hugh Gibbons, Robert Good, Joseph Guilford, Jacob Heiter, Brian Henry, Leopald Hipp, John Killen, August Kreiger, Martin Lawler, William H. Nichols, Joseph Muenzenmayer, William Ridler, John Reheis, Adam Reinochle, John Roeser, Gustav Sells, Fred W. Smith, Francis Tracy, John Van Fossen, John Wilson, Charles Wilstoff and Ely L. Zane.
Lieutenant John W. Dyer was killed in battle at Wilson creek. John Farrall died at Vicksburg of wounds received in action. Daniel Donahue died at Trenton, Tennessee. Martin Lawler, Joel Armes and Adam Reinochle either were killed outright, or died of wounds in the battle at Wilson Creek. Francis Tracy died at Natchez, Mississippi and John Roeser was drowned in the Missouri river. Eleven of the soldiers from Wyandotte in this regiment were discharged from the service on account of wounds and disabilities.
OUR BOYS IN THE SECOND.
The Second Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry contained twenty-two men from Wyandotte county. Dr. Joseph P. Root, Dr. George B. Wood and Dr. Ivan D. Heath were regimental surgeons; Joseph Sanger and John Burke, sergeants; Theodore Praun, a corporal. The privates in the regiment from Wyandotte were: William T. Ainsworth, Wesley Boyles, Squire Boyles, Elias Boyles, James Boyles, Pembrook Harris, Dionysius Harris, Wendelin Krumm, Jacob Hammelman, Augustus Luke, John Myers, Michael McLain, Engelhardt Noll, Joseph Praun and John Rusk.
William T. Ainsworth was a prisoner of war, captured near Fort Gibson. Dr. George B. Wood resigned because his health failed him. Joseph Praun was mustered out from the general hospital in Little Rock, while ill, and four others were discharged for disability. Two were deserters.
Wyandotte county had twenty-one representatives in the Fifth Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry. Alfred Gray was quartermaster. The privates were as follows: Riley Alley, Linneus T. Bancroft, Rusha Chaplog, Tally Beverly, Moses Denna, Richardson Hill, Simon Hill, William H. Jones, Zacharai Longhouse, Harrison Love, Four Miles, John Moonshine, Philip Mature, Little Shaughai, Thomas Punch, Thompson Smith, Christian Snake, James Thomas, George Williams and James Wilson.
Of these twenty-one Wyandotte soldiers, most of whom were Indians, eleven were transferred to other regiments and eight deserted, one was dishonorably discharged, and of one there is no record when he was discharged, transferred or mustered out.
The Sixth Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry was a popular regiment for Wyandotte county men. Many of the sixty-four volunteers from this county were Wyandotte and Delaware Indians. John A. Johnson, first a lieutenant, won promotion to the rank of major. Jacob H. Bartles was quartermaster sergeant. Victor Leivaux was veterinary surgeon for the regiment. Thomas Crooks rose from sergeant to lieutenant and then became a captain. Nathaniel B. Lucas was a captain; Matthew Cleary, Thomas Darling, Daniel Brayman, Ebenezer W. Lucas, Samuel J. Martin and John F. Smith were lieutenants; Lemuel P. Ketchum served as commissary sergeant, and the sergeants were William H. Wren, Samuel J. Martin, Joseph E. Powell, Granville Freeman, George A. Carleton, James H. Cadell and Benjamin F. Reck. The corporals were Benjamin T. J. Bennett, Robert W. Robetaille, Henry W. Freeman, Benjamin W. Hurd, Jacob J. Kleinkneht, and John Cotter; Wallace Higgins was a bugler, and the following were the privates who enlisted from Wyandotte county: Thomas Alsup, James E. Bishop, Jackson Bullet, George A. Coray, George Cummings, Frederick Dodd, Joseph R. Donnelly, Jacob Dick, James W. Duncan, George Evans, John Duncan, Theodore Grindel, John File, James Hicks, Silas Greyeyes, Emmanuel F. Heisler, Jacob High, Joseph Hanford, Charles R. Hanford, Southerland Ingersoll, Isaac Johnnycake, Benjamin Johnnycake, Thomas S. Kames, Lemuel P. Ketchum, William R. Ketchum, Beverly Lancaster, Timothy S. Lucas, Jacob Linneas, Solomon Love, Yellow Leaf, James Peacock, Benjamin F. Russell, William P. Pedigo, William X. Pedigo, David N. Rogers, Raif Steele, Joseph Thorp, Peter White, John W. Whitman, Allen T. Wright, Josiah Wonsetter and Alvatus Williams.
Granville P. Freeman died May 11, 1864, at Dardanelle, Arkansas, of wounds, Corporal John H. Cotter was killed by guerrillas near Fort Smith. George Evans died of consumption. James Hicks was a prisoner of war. Captain Nathaniel B. Lucas was transferred to command a company of the Eighteenth United States Colored Volunteers. Two Wyandotte soldiers deserted the regiment.
Wyandotte county sent twenty-three men to the front with the Tenth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, headed by Colonel William Weir. John J. Lannon was sergeant major; James H. Harris, captain; William C. Harris, first lieutenant; Anderson W. Nicholas and Mortimer C. Harris, corporals, and George B. Reichnecker, musician. The privates: Charles E. Armour, David Ernhout, Andrew Franz, John Galvin, Charles C. Johnson, Charles Klinefogel, Thomas Lannan, William Molton, Richard C. Powell, Samuel P. Parsons, James A. Rich, Thomas H. Tracy, John Tracy, George Tremblett, Benjamin F. Saylor, and George C. Waddle.
Six of the twenty-three Wyandotte volunteers died of disease while in service. They were Charles Klinefogle, William Molton, Samuel P. Parsons, David Ernhout, Charles E. Armour and Richard P. Powell. Three men deserted and Colonel Weir was dismissed from service by General Order No. 123, dated at St. Louis August 20, 1864.
Wyandotte county gave to the Twelfth Regiment Volunteer Cavalry many of the bravest and best men who fought with the command in Arkansas. Among these were many Wyandot and Delaware Indians. Of the regimental officers, William Sellers was for a time chaplain. The roster of Wyandotte men who served as officers in this regiment follows: Orlando S. Bartlett and James D. Chestnut, captains; Fletcher Hedding and Samuel M. Stephens, sergeants; Gustav Tauber, commissary sergeant; Thomas H. Gahagan, William Hazlett and George W. Newell, musicians; James Summerwell, Rufus W. Foster, William Selers, James P. Killen, Silas Adams, John S. Heald and John E. Marutzky, corporals. The privates were William Armstrong, Orrin Baldwin, Isaac Bigtree, Christian F. Bowen, William C. Blue, Chad. Brostwick, Louis Bigknife, Frederick Britton, Jacob Carhead, Joseph Charloe, Cornelius H. Creeden, Edward Clinton, David Charloe, Henry Chrysler, Sebastian O. Downey, Peter Donnika, Peter Dailey, William Day, Moses Dougherty, Abraham Demerest, Charles Edwards, William Ellis, Conrad Grespacher, Jessie Giaury, Jeremiah Harrison, Edward Hollevet, George A. Horning, William Hazlett, George Hanford, William Johnson, Thomas Johnson, Austin Kroop, William Johnson, Thomas Jacklin, Thomas A. Kirk, Henry Kersey, William Lewis, Seth A. Leavitt, Isaac Littlechief, William H. Lindsey, Samuel McCowan, Elias B. Myers, James Mature, John McCain, John Murphy, David Matthews, Henry W. Miller, John P. Nickel], Almond Noble, Smith Nicholas, William Nicholas, Edward O'Hare, John N. Poe, Gideon B. Parsons, Henry Puckett, John Porcupine, Josiah Puckett, Thomas Payne, Joseph Peacock, William Parker, John A. Randall, John Rodgers, James Smith, Joseph Streatmater, Christian Santer, Rudolph Wiltz, William Whitefeather, Jacob Whitewing, Sebastian Waller, Lewis Wengartner, Frank Whitewing, William Walker, Patrick Whalen, and Michael Youngman.
This was a regiment that suffered by exposure in the Ozarks and by hard fighting. Of the eighty-eight men from Wyandotte sixteen died of disease, three were killed, fourteen were discharged for disability and twelve deserted. Those who died from disease were George W. Newell, Fletcher Hedding, Silas Adams, Elias A. Myers, Gideon B. Parsons, Henry Puckett, John A. Randall, Joseph Steatmater, James Whitewing, Edward Clinton, Isaac Littlechief, James Peacock, Henry W. Miller, William Parker and James Smith. An accident caused the death of George Hanford, musician, at Fort Smith, guerrillas killed William Whitefeather, and William Johnson died of wounds.
The call for volunteers for the Fifteenth Regiment Kansas Cavalry was responded to by a body of seventy-three Wyandotte county patriots. The list follows: John T. Smith and William H. H. Grinter, first lieutenants; John W. R. Lucas, quartermaster sergeant; Alexander Zane, William H. Worrell, John Jordan, Erasmus Riley, Dennis F. Lucas and William A. Long, sergeants; John Kanally, James M. Thorp, Adam Wilson, Carroll S. Evans, Timothy H. Carlton, Eldridge H. Brown and Josiah Thorp, corporals; David Thomas, Henry Runne, John Hohenstenner and Richard L. Warrell, buglers; Gilbert Lewis, wagoner; James M. Long, saddler; David N. Baker, farrier. The privates: Henry J. Armstrong, Edward M. Alexander, Peter Broham, William B. Bushman, Doctor Block, Rusha Chaploy, John Coon, Moses Denna, William Cheeley, William Driver, John Freeman, Byron Gannett, Henry Groh, Henry Gibson, John Gillis, Samuel Glass, Andrew B. Hovey, Sylvanus Harless, Jacob Higgins, William H. Jones, Charles W. Ketchum, Charles E. Learned, Daniel Long, Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Lewis, John Longbone, Zachariah Longhouse, James Logan, Philip Mature, Big Moccasin, John Martin, James H. Murray, James Moody, Elijah Owens, George Pemsey, Winfield Pipe, Thomas Punch, James Rowe, James Roberts, James Shanghai, Wilson Sarcoxie, Thompson Smith, Lamon Scott, Thomas Shields, Joseph Shorter, Beverly Tally, Frederick Vickers, James Wilson, Hiram Young and Ethan L. Zane.
Although the Fifteenth did some hard fighting at the Battle of the Blue, only three of the seventy-three officers and privates from Wyandotte county were fatally wounded. These were John Kannally, John Longbone and Joseph Shorter. Two were discharged for disabilities and six deserted. Those who died of disease were William Driver, Henry Gibson, James Logan, John Martin.
In the Sixteenth Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, organized in the winter of 1863-4, Colonel Werter R. Davis of Baldwin City enrolled many volunteers from Wyandotte county. The list of officers follows: Sergeants, William Sweeney, William McDonald, William McDowell, Morton Wallace, David B. Johnson, Charles S. Williamson, William Brown, James Breunner, Morgan McIntyre, Samuel T. Hannan, Henry Gray, Charles B. Morgan, William Moore, Isaac G. McGibbon, James W. Powell, John E. Renfro, Thomas Maloney, Franklin W. Patterson; corporals, John Hogan, James C. Barnett, Robert Bayles, Thomas Brereton, John S. Waddel, Francis N. Kennedy, Newton J. Myers, Frederick Oltens, Duncan Kieth, John Kyle and John W. Woodman. The privates: James Abbot, John B. Akers, George Allison, Abraham Arms, William Anderson, James B. Barnett, John F. Beavers, Reuben Brown, Dennis Buckley, John D. Brown, Jr., Newton Butler, John D. Brown, Sr., William Beamish, Samuel S. Beebe, James M. Barnes, Jeremiah Burrus, Ransom Beach, Alfred Briggs, William Bryson, John Coyle, Peter Cunningham, James Cregg, James Cobine, Joseph C. Coakley, Benjamin Crim, John Carr, M. D. S. Collins, William Clary, Oliver Dorris, Archelaus Doxsee, William B. Duncan, Nicholas Dedier, Richard Frost, Michael J. Fox, Daniel Fitzgerald, Michael Fitzpatrick, John L. Green, Jacob Hayden, Elias J. Hampton, Eli Hargis, John W. Hampton, William Hunter, John Harris, Henry Jarvis, John M. Kennedy, Benjamin Keen, James H. Knuckols, James Lewis, Daniel P. Lucas, Milton L. McAlexander, Dennis Murphy, Bernard McDermott, Ruben Mapes, John Mitchell, William A. McLaughlin, James McTour, Charles H. McLaughlin, Michael McCarthy, John W. Maine, James Noble, Goodlip Oleman, Peter Onnerson, Franklin W. Patterson, John Punch, George W. Patton, Andrew Priddy, Jerome Payne, Henry Perry, Paschal Pockett, John W. Pearson, William Reed, James R. M. Renfro, George W. Ratliff, Jefferson C. Saylor, George W. Spicer, William M. Sears, William J. Sears, Luther Shorkman, Thomas Sullivan, John R. Smith, John Thayer, Herman Thayer, Edwin E. Willis, Joseph Whitecrow, Jackson Wiletrout, Alphonse B. Wolf, James C. Wilkinson, Ephraim B. Warren, John Wahlenmeyer and John S. Waddel.
Of the one hundred and nineteen officers and men from Wyandotte county who served in the Sixteenth in the two years of its existence nine died from disease, six were discharged for disability, eleven deserted and the remainder were mustered out on December 6, 1865. Those who died from disease were Edwin E. Willis, George Allison, Henry Gray, James McTour, Luther Shorkman, Jeremiah Burrus, Richard Frost, Elias J. Hampton and John W. Maine.
The number of volunteer soldiers from Wyandotte county that served in the colored regiments was: 206 in the First Colored Regiment, 102 in the Second, 35 in the Independent Colored Kansas Battery, and 80 in the Eighteenth United States Colored Infantry. The total was 483.
The soldiers that went from Wyandotte county with the First Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry saw hard service from the start. While the regiment was lying in its original camp, a rebel flag was displayed at the village of latan, across the river in Missouri, about eight miles above Leavenworth. Sergeant Denning, with a squad of six men, proceeded, without orders, on June 5th, to haul down the insolent flag. Three of these men were wounded, but they brought the flag to camp as a trophy and evidence of their success. In due time the regiment broke camp, and moved toward the field of war, and on July 7th it effected a junction with the army of General Lyon. Afterward, on August 10th, it participated in the battle of Wilson's Creek, Missouri, where it suffered considerable loss in killed and wounded. It then fell back with the army to Rolla, that state. Soon after Beauregard evacuated Corinth, Mississippi, the First Kansas arrived at Pittsburg Landing, where the great battle of Shiloh had been fought on the 6th and 7th of the previous April. Reinforcements not being necessary there, General Halleck sent the regiment to Columbus, Kentucky. The regiment led the pursuit of the rebels, as part of General McPherson's brigade, after the battles of October 3 and 4, 1862, at Corinth, and participated in the campaigns against Vicksburg, in Mississippi. After February 1, 1863, the First Kansas was mounted, and for the next eighteen months it served as mounted infantry, being a very effective branch of the army. After the fall of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863, it was ordered to Natchez, Mississippi, to hold that post. In October following it was returned to Vicksburg, and stationed on an outpost on Black River bridge, with picket posts on both sides of the river. It also accompanied General McArthur's expedition up the Yazoo river.
Upon the expiration of its term of service (June 3, 1864), all of the men, except recruits whose terms of enlistment had not expired and two companies of re-enlisted veterans, embarked on board the transport "Arthur," and moved to Leavenworth, where they were mustered out, June 16, 1864. The veterans of the regiment continued in the service in the states of Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas, until after the close of the war, and were mustered out at Little Rock, Arkansas, August 30, 1865.
The Second Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry as originally formed participated in the battle at Wilson Creek. After it was reorganized as cavalry, the regiment chased and routed several southern raiding parties, and on October 4th, it was sent to Newtonia to re-enforce Brigadier General Solomon. Afterward, on October 20, 1862, it did good service at Pea Ridge, or Elkhorn, in Arkansas. A Confederate battery, consisting of four guns, was captured by this regiment. It was manned and was thereafter known as Hopkin's Battery, and continued to act with the regiment. In November following, the Second Kansas moved with the army of General Curtis toward Fort Smith, Arkansas, and participated in the action near Rhea's Mills on the 7th, and in the action near Boonesboro on the 28th of November. Again, on the 6th and 7th of December following, it was engaged in the action on Cove Creek, near Fayetteville, Arkansas; in all of which engagements the Union forces were successful.
It also bore a prominent part in the expedition which, on August 23, 1863, crossed the Arkansas river to Holly Springs, in the Indian Territory, afterward captured Fort Smith, Arkansas, and drove the enemy from the northwestern part of that state. During the winter of 1863-4 this regiment did effective service in Arkansas, capturing a goodly number of prisoners. During the spring and summer of 1864 it served under General Steele in the southern Arkansas, and did much effective work. It continued to operate in that state and the Indian Territory until its final muster out. It received many recruits in Arkansas after helping to drive the armed enemy out. It did very effective service, and its history in detail would make a very readable book. Some of its men having served their full time, were mustered out in April, 1865, at Little Rock; others, June 22, 1865, at Fort Gibson, Indian Territory; others, at Leavenworth, Kansas, at different times; and still others were mustered out on different dates at several other places. The greater number of the regiment, however, were mustered out at Leavenworth.
Two companies of the Fifth Kansas Cavalry left Leavenworth in July, 1861, coming to Kansas City. Their first engagement was at Harrisonville, Missouri, where the enemy was driven from the town. The regiment participated in the fight at Drywood September 2nd, and in the action at Morristown on the 17th, where Colonel Johnson was killed. It went into winter quarters at Camp Denver, and in February, 1862, Lieutenant Colonel Powell Clayton became its colonel and assumed command. The regiment was then thoroughly drilled and made useful. On March 19th following, it made valuable captures at Carthage, Missouri, making prisoners a company of guerrillas then and there forming. Afterward the regiment entered Arkansas, and in the summer following it routed an Arkansas regiment of cavalry from the town of Salem, in that state, and a large force of Texas rangers on Black river, near Jacksonport. The detachment winning these victories was under command of Captain Criets. Afterward, at the battle of Helena, the regiment won distinction and rendered valuable service under General Steele in the capture of Little Rock, Arkansas. On October 25, 1863, the Fifth Kansas had a hard fight with a Confederate force much superior in numbers and lost thirty-seven men, but held its position, the loss of the enemy being greater. Following this, the regiment did much service in southern Arkansas and elsewhere in the state. It was with General Steele at Mark's Mills, when the enemy captured his baggage train and a few of his men. On September 17th there was a hard fight at Warren Cross Roads and part of the Union forces were scattered, but the Fifth Kansas, First Indiana and Seventh Missouri repelled the enemy and saved the artillery from capture. The remainder of the service of the regiment was of less note. The men of the regiment were mustered out at various times and places, when they had finished their term of service, and the re-enlisted veterans were mustered out June 22, 1865, at Devall's Bluff, Arkansas.
Garrison duty and scouting constituted the first work of the Sixth Cavalry, which was organized for the defense of the southern frontier of the state. The battle of Drywood was commenced by a company of this command. In the spring of 1862 the regiment was re-organized and made more effective. It then gave attention to guerrillas and bushwhackers, and succeeded in breaking up some small companies of guerrillas under the notorious Quantrell and others; it also broke up not less than eight companies of bushwhackers, killing and wounding a large number, without suffering much loss. In June, 1862, the Sixth won distinction in the fight of Cowskin Prairie, and, on July 4th following, it chased the retreating forces of Confederates, when Colonel Clarkson and a number of his men were captured. On that day two companies of the regiment routed the enemy at Stanwattie's Mills and captured a large amount of provisions. The same month a detachment of the regiment captured the Cherokee chief, John Ross, who was fighting for the south. In August the Sixth accompanied a command toward the Missouri river in pursuit of the noted General Cooper and his command. The latter was overtaken and defeated at the Osage river. Scouting and skirmishing were successfully continued by the Sixth until September 30th when it participated in the battle of Newtonia and covered the retirement of the united forces. It then assisted in the several actions which resulted in driving the enemy across the Boston mountains.
The Sixth was at the battle of Prairie Grove, in Washington county, Arkansas, which took place on December 7, 1862, and afterward assisted in capturing Van Buren, Fort Gibson and Fort Davis, and then returned to Missouri for winter quarters. Recruiting was carried on to some extent during the early winter and the spring of 1863. The Sixth took part in the fight and capture of Holly Springs, July 18, 1863, and then performed scouting service until it joined Steele's army and took part in the Camden expedition, being in the skirmish at Prairie de Anne on April 10th following, and the fight at Acbin Creek on September 19, 1864. It participated in many small engagements and continued active until hostilities ceased. The men were mustered out at various places and dates, the last of the veterans being honorably discharged July 18, 1865, at Devall's Bluff, Arkansas.
After performing many minor services the Tenth Infantry took part in the expedition against Colonel Clarkson, on July 3, 1862, which resulted in the capture of this officer and 155 of his men, besides the killing and wounding of about seventy of the enemy. The Tenth was repeatedly opposed to the officers, Coffey and Cockrell, and it assisted in the pursuit of the Confederates in their retreat from Newtonia. In the fall of 1882 the regiment participated in the campaign in northwest Arkansas, and was lightly engaged in action at Cane Hill and Prairie Grove, losing in the latter engagement twenty-three per cent of its men.
The Tenth moved out of camp on December 27, 1862, to strike Hindman at Van Buren, and put an end to his army. Marmaduke next invited the attention of the Tenth, with a force of 6,000 cavalry advancing to Springfield, Missouri. The regiment made a forced march to that place in conjunction with a brigade of cavalry in very severe weather, making thirty-five miles a day, and by their advance forced Marmaduke to retreat. The brigade followed the Confederate and routed him at Sand Spring, thirty miles beyond Springfield, and that general in his hurried retreat fell into the hands of General Warren, who completed his discomfiture. The campaign of 1862 was concluded in a manner very honorable for the Tenth. The regiment was mustered out of service in August, 1864, but immediately re-organized as veterans. It then served against Hood in Tennessee (at Columbia, Franklin, Nashville), and in pursuit of the routed foe winning distinction, always being assigned to the skirmish line on every important occasion; and their losses abundantly testify to their courage and endurance. The regiment was dispatched to Fort Gaines, Alabama, on March 7, 1865, and operated in that line of country until a junction was effected with General Steele, and the works of the enemy at Fort Blakely captured. The Tenth was named in the reports officially made in a manner exceedingly gratifying to the state. The final muster out occurred on September 20, 1865, at Fort Leavenworth.
In the spring of 1863 the Twelfth Cavalry, in which Wyandotte county had many brave fighters, was moved to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and the following fall it went to Fort Smith, Arkansas, and thence, in the spring of 1864, it participated in the Camden expedition, remaining at Camden about ten days and then falling back to Little Rock, Arkansas, with Steele's army. It was in the fight at Prairie de Anne, and on April 30th it bravely repulsed the enemy's advance at Jenkins' Ferry, which enabled the Union troops safely to cross the Saline river and make a safe retreat to Little Rock. After staying a few days at Little Rock, the regiment went back to Fort Smith, where it remained until fall; then returned to Little Rock, where it spent the winter. It was mustered out June 30, 1865.
The services of the Fifteenth regiment of Kansas Cavalry were confined largely to expeditions against bushwhackers and marauders. This service was well performed, although no brilliant fighting is recorded for the cavalry.
The Sixteenth Kansas Cavalry came into service too late to share in the fighting with the regiments formed earlier. Its service at home in protecting the people from the Indians and guerrillas, however, was well performed.
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