Osborn's Administration.On Jan. 14, 1873, the thirteenth state legislature met in regular session, at the opening of which Gov. Osborn was inaugurated. Elias S. Stover was at the same time sworn in as lieutenant governor, and by virtue of his office became the presiding officer of the senate. Josiah Kellogg was elected speaker of the house, and on the 16th Gov. Osborn's first message was presented to the general assembly. It was an interesting document, in that it made a comparison of the conditions in 1862, the first full year of statehood, with those of 1872. The principal features of this comparison are shown in the following table:
|Number of school districts||534||3,418|
|Number of teachers||319||3,795|
|Number of children of school age||13,976||165,982|
|Value of school property||$10,432||$2,845,262|
|Salaries of teachers||$14,099||$596,611|
|Amount raised by district tax||$10,381||$822,644|
|Value of all taxable property||$19,285,749||$127,690,937|
|Number of votes cast||15,418||101,488|
|Miles of railroad||none||2,039|
In 1862 the state was without a penitentiary, a state university, an agricultural college, a state normal school, a state capital, asylums for the care of the insane, blind and deaf and dumb, all of which had been established on a firm foundation during the first ten years of statehood.
"Our vote at the late election," says the governor, "was larger than the vote of either of the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Nebraska, Nevada, Oregon, South Carolina, West Virginia, California or Minnesotalarger than the vote of any New England state except Massachusetts, and larger than the combined vote of Nebraska, Nevada, Rhode Island and Oregon."
In 1872, according to the governor's message, Kansas had more miles of railroad than either of twenty-six states, including each of the six New England states and all of the Southern states. The state debt was reported as being $1,544,142.75, of which $1,336,675 was in bonds; $201,109 in outstanding state warrants, and $7,142.75 in old territorial warrants. In the matter of finances the governor insisted upon strict economy. "A frugal administration of the affairs of government," said he, "is urgently demanded. The great scarcity of money makes the demand imperative. I urge upon you a careful examination of the laws, with a view of doing away with every unnecessary expense, and you should rigidly scrutinize all measures requiring the expenditure of money."
This was written months before the failure of Jay Cooke & Co. of New York, which failure precipitated one of the greatest financial panics in the history of the country; and in the industrial depression that followed, it was no doubt a fortunate thing for Kansas that she had as a chief executive a man with well defined ideas of economyone able to distinguish between genuine frugality and parsimony.
On the subject of convict labor Gov. Osborn said: "Complaint has been made that the labor at the penitentiary has been brought into competition with the labor of the mechanics of the state . . . . As a remedy for this evil other states have provided that convict labor should be employed in the production of common articles requiring little skill. This course has also proved profitable, and the institutions are fast becoming self-supporting."
He recommended the establishment of a reform school, so that boys convicted of their first offense would not have to be confined with hardened criminals, and pointed out several defects in the state constitution, to-wit:
1stThe limit of the bonded indebtedness of the state to $1,000,000, which had been reached, while several public buildings either commenced or contemplated could not he completed for lack of power to issue additional bonds.
2ndThat section 1, article 5, was at that time in direct conflict with the constitution of the United States, in denying the negroes the right of suffrage.
3dThe amendment to section 2, article 5, disfranchising certain persons, had been adopted by a small majority; the arguments in its favor had ceased to have any force, and he recommended the removal of the restrictions.
4thAs originally adopted section 2, article 2, provided that there should never be more than 100 representatives and 33 senators in the state legislature, while section 1, article 10, provided that in all future apportionments of the state for legislative purposes, each county should have at least one representative. Since the last apportionment in 1871, twelve new counties had been organized and the number of 100 had been reached and passed. It would be impossible to comply with the conflicting provisions of the constitution in this particular, give each county a representative and still restrict the number to 100.
5th"In sixteen of the states," says the message, "the legislatures meet in regular session only once in two years. These states seem to have had too much legislation. Constant changes of laws lead to confusion and promote litigation. The expenses attending an annual session of the legislature are heavy, and might be diminished one-half by biennial sessions."
Under the provisions of the constitution only three amendments may be submitted to the people in any one year, while in his message the governor suggested five changes. "Other defects," said he, "have been frequently alluded to by my predecessors. As a remedy for these evils it seems to me that the time has come for holding a constitutional convention." (See Constitutional Amendments.)
One of the duties that devolved upon the assembly of 1873 was the election of a United States senator. In his message the governor referred to "reports that have been so generally circulated of the wholesale purchase of legislatures in our former elections," and expressed the hope "that the day is not far distant when senators in Congress will be chosen by a direct vote of the people."
On Jan. 29 the two branches of the legislature met in joint session to ballot for a United States senator to succeed Senator Pomeroy, whose term would expire on the 4th of the following March. Before the vote was taken State Senator Alexander M. York of Montgomery county, announced that on Monday evening, the 27th, he had visited Senator Pomeroy's room in the Tefft House and entered into an arangement[sic] by which he was to receive $8,000 for casting his vote for Mr. Pomeroy; that $2,000 was then and there paid to him; that he had received $5,000 more on the 28th, and was to receive the remaining $1,000 after he had cast his vote according to the agreement. The $7,000 he turned over to the chief clerk and asked that the money be used "to defray the expenses of prosecuting the investigation of Samuel C. Pomeroy for bribery and corruption."
This announcement was like the proverbial clap of thunder from the clear sky and stampeded the joint session for John J. Ingalls, who received 115 votes to 2 for ex-Gov. Harvey; 6 for David P. Lowe; 2 for Sidney Clarke; 2 for Alexander M. York; 1 for ex-Gov. Robinson, and 1 for Samuel A. Kingman, On Feb. 4 the house, by a vote of 64 to 8, requested Mr. Pomeroy to resign his seat. The following day the senate, by a vote of 21 to 9, made a similar request, and the house, by a vote of 51 to 39, asked for the resignation of United States Senator Alexander Caldwell, whose election had been investigated by the legislature of the previous year. (See Harvey's Administration.)
The question of Mr. Pomeroy's bribery was taken up by the United States senate and referred to a committee, a majority of which reported on March 3, 1873. The report concluded as follows: "The committee, bearing in mind, while examining the evidence, that the whole transaction, whatever view be taken of it, is the result of a concerted plot to defeat Mr. Pomeroy, and remembering that the burden of proof is on the party making the accusation, have come to the conclusion that Mr. York has not sustained his charge by sufficient proof, contradicted as it is by the evidence of Mr. Page and Mr. Pomeroy. (A full report of this committee may be found in the Senate Documents of the Forty-second Congress, second session, Report No. 523.)
On March 6, 1873, Senator Oliver P. Morton of Indiana introduced a resolution in the United States senate that Alexander Caldwell was not legally elected a United States senator from Kansas, and made a strong speech in support of his resolution. On the 24th of the same month Senator Caldwell resigned.
The legislature of 1873 adjourned on March 7. During the session a number of acts defining county boundaries were passed; a Price Raid commission was created; the governor was authorized to appoint a commission of three citizens to visit the various state institutions and report on their condition and general management; a state board of education was established; a law was enacted exempting mortgages from taxation, and a constitutional amendment increasing the number of members of the legislature was ordered to be submitted to the people at the next general election. This amendment, which increased the membership of the house to 123 and the senate to 40, was adopted by the people at the election on Nov. 4, 1873, by a majority of 3,051.
Shortly after the adjournment of the general assembly Gov. Osborn appointed Joseph C. Wilson, Charles Puffer and C. S. Brodbent commissioners to visit and inspect the public institutions of the state. In December they made detailed reports concerning the state university, the state normal school, the agricultural college, the deaf and dumb, blind and insane asylums, and the penitentiary. The reports showed a list of the lands belonging to each of the educational institutions, the amount of money appropriated by the state to each, and the general conditions attending the management, with recommendations as to needed legislation.
The legislative session of 1874 opened on Jan. 13 with Lieut.-Gov Elias S. Stower presiding in the senate and B. H. McEckron speaker of the house. Gov. Osborn began his annual message by saying: "The growth of the state for the past year has been rapid and continuous, the bulk of immigration having apparently been directed to the western and southern portions. Ford, Barbour, Harper, Ness and Comanche counties have been organized under the general law. A significant and cheering indication of the future of the state is found in the gradual extension of settlement and the corresponding extension of the frontier limit."
He then discussed the financial depression that prevailed throughout the country, especially the influence upon the financial condition of the state; recommended such a change in the tax laws as would reduce the interest on tax-sale certificates from fifty to twenty-five per cent. and making semi-annual payments of taxes optional with the taxpayer; announced that the debenture law contained some very objectionable features and recommended its repeal; recommended also the repeal of the law exempting mortgages from taxation, because it came in conflict with the provisions of the constitution; and repeated his recommendations for a constitutional convention.
"Recent defalcations of county treasurers," said he, "have directed attention to the necessity of limiting the now absolute control which the custodians of public funds have over those funds. . . . It is for you to consider what, if any, additional checks should be imposed upon our treasurers. It occurs to me that, for instance, a system of duplicate accounts might be devised which would render defalcation impossible without the concurrence of the clerk."
He likewise suggested monthly examinations of accounts by authorized persons, and announced that on Nov. 26, 1873, he had appointed Robert Crozier United States senator to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Alexander Caldwell, until such time as the vacancy should be supplied by the general assembly. On Jan. 27, 1874, the first ballot for a senator to succeed Mr. Caldwell was taken by the legislature, but as no one received a majority of all the votes cast, the balloting was continued daily until Feb. 2, when ex-Gov. James M. Harvey was elected.
In his report for the year ending Nov. 30, 1873, State Auditor Wilder charged State Treasurer Josiah E. Hayes with certain "official irregularities," and on Jan. 19, 1874, the house adopted a resolution, introduced by A. H. Horton, authorizing the committee on state affairs to investigate the "official action of said treasurer, as also the condition of the treasury of state." The report of this committee may be found on page 527 of the House Journal of 1874, and concludes as follows: "Resolved, That Josiah F. Hayes, treasurer of the State of Kansas, be and is hereby impeached for high crimes and misdemeanors in office." The testimony taken by the committee would indicate that the conditions then existing were due to weakness in the laws of the state relating to the public funds, in not prescribing more specifically how they should be cared for, and to the fact that the treasurer was negligent, if not incompetent, rather than to any wilful criminal intent on his part. Notwithstanding this, impeachment managers were appointed, but on May 1 Albert H. Horton wrote to Lieut.-Gov. Stover that Mr. Hayes had resigned, and that "the board of managers have decided that it is an unnecessary expense to call witnesses before the senate, and ask you to recall the subpoenas issued and notify the witnesses that they need not appear. On the convening of the senate we shall announce to the court the resignation, and shall state that we do not deem it advisable to proceed with an expensive trial."
This ended the impeachment proceedings against Mr. Hayes, and on the same day Judge Horton's letter to Mr. Stover was written John Francis of Iola was appointed state treasurer for the unexpired term.
On Feb. 4 Gov. Osborn sent to the legislature a special message relating to the atrocious murders committed by the Bender family (q. v.), and an appropriation of $1,975 was made to defray the expenses of pursuit and of bringing the criminals to justice. Another special message on March 4 related to the county seat difficulties in Howard county.
John A. Martin, United States Centennial commissioner for Kansas, and George A. Crawford, alternate, united in a recommendation that a state board of managers be created by the legislature, to coöperate with them in securing a proper exhibit, etc. The result was the passage of the act of March 9, authorizing the governor to appoint five state centennial managers, who with the United States commissioner and alternate commissioner of Kansas "shall have to care for the interests of the state and of its citizens in matters relating to the international exhibition at Philadelphia," etc. (See Expositions.)
The legislature adjourned on March 10. Among the acts passed during the session were the following: Appropriating a sum of money to test the title to the Osage ceded lands; defining the boundaries of a number of counties; authorizing the governor, secretary of state and auditor "to designate some bank in the city of New York as a state agency for the payment of bonds and coupons issued by the State of Kansas, or any county, township, city or school district in said state, which are by their terms made payable in the said city of New York." A law prohibiting lotteries was passed; the act exempting mortgages from taxation was repealed; semi-annual payment of taxes was provided for, and the state was divided into three Congressional districts (q. v.).
The political campaign of 1874 was opened by what was known as the "Independent Reform" movementan organization composed of all the elements opposed to the Republican partyin a state convention at Topeka on Aug. 5. The platform adopted arraigned the administration for prodigality and wasteful extravagance;" for the "innumerable frauds perpetrated under its authority;" for its "incapacity to meet the vital question of the day," and especially denounced the legislature for "having failed to provide for the speedy removal of defaulting treasurers from office, and their punishment for malfeasance in office."
J. C. Cusey was nominated for governor; Eldred Harrington, for lieutenant-governor; Nelson Abbott, for secretary of state; George P. Smith, for auditor; Charles F. Koester, for treasurer; J. R. Hallowell, for attorney-general; H. B. Norton, for superintendent of public instruction; William P. Douthitt, for associate justice. Mr. Koester and Mr. Norton both declined their nominations, and the vacancies on the ticket were supplied by the selection of James E. Watson for treasurer and W. B. Christopher for superintendent.
The Republican state convention was held at Topeka on Aug. 26, when Gov. Osborn and Auditor Wilder were renominated; M. J. Salter was named for lieutenant-governor; Thomas A. Cavanaugh, for secretary of state; Samuel Lappin, for treasurer; A. M. F. Randolph, for attorney-general; John Fraser, for superintendent of public instruction; D. M. Valentine, for associate justice.
Much of the platform was devoted to a laudation of the Republican party for what it had accomplished in the past. It denounced the "present peace policy" of dealing with the Indians and favored the transfer of the Indian bureau to the war department; demanded that public lands belonging to the United States be held for the use and benefit of actual settlers, and condemned any further grants of the public domain to railroads or other corporations.
A state temperance convention met at Topeka on Aug. 20, but adjourned to meet at Leavenworth on Sept. 10, when, for the first time, a state Temperance ticket was placed in the field in Kansas. This ticket was made up as follows: W. K. Marshall, for governor; L. Brown, lieutenant-governor; W. H. Robinson, secretary of state; David C. Beach, auditor; William Fairchild, treasurer; Mrs. M. J. Sharon, superintendent of public instruction, and the Republican candidates for attorney-general and associate justice. The platform demanded an economical administration of all departments of the government; legal prohibition of the manufacture, importation and sale of all intoxicating liquors to be used as beverages; and the immediate and complete protection of the exposed frontier from Indian outrages.
At the election on Nov. 3 Gov. Osborn received 48,594 votes; Cusey, the Reform candidate, 35,301; and Marshall, the Temperance candidate, 2,227. This was the first time in the history of Kansas that the candidates for Congress were elected by districts. In the first district William A. Phillips, Republican, defeated Marcus J. Parrott, the Reform candidate; in the second John R. Goodin, the Reform candidate, was elected over Stephen A. Cobb, Republican; and in the third district William R. Brown, Republican, defeated J. K. Hudson, Reformer.
On Aug. 25, 1874, the day before the assembling of the Republican state convention, a number of the delegates from the western counties held a meeting and decided to ask the state convention to declare in favor of a special session of the legislature for the purpose of extending aid to the people of the western part of the state, whose crops had been destroyed by grasshoppers. In response to this request, Gov. Osborn called the general assembly to meet in extraordinary session on Sept. 15. At that special session Thomas P. Fenlon was speaker of the house. In his message the governor said: "The sole object and purpose for which you are called together at this time is to devise ways and means to relieve citizens in certain sections of the state from want and suffering, who have been made suddenly destitute by grasshoppers or locusts, which have overrun the western portion of the state. Unable to meet the necessities of these thousands of our citizens in this sudden and unprecedented calamitynecessities which in some cases are already becoming of a distressing characterI have evoked the only legally constituted authority in the state government to provide the necessary relief." (See Grasshoppers.)
The special session adjourned on the 22nd, after authorizing counties to issue bonds for the relief of the sufferers, directing an issue of $73,000 in state bonds for the same purpose (only $7,500 of these bonds were issued); and the enactment of a law requiring county treasurers to make quarterly statements.
When the fifteenth annual session of the legislature convened on Jan. 12, 1875, Lieut.-Gov. Salter again presided over the senate, and Edward H. Funston was chosen speaker of the house. Gov. Osborn's message was delivered to the assembly on the 13th. In it he gave a detailed report of the grasshopper plague of the previous year; announced the total bonded indebtedness of the state as being $1,341,775, of which $703,825 was held by the sinking fund, leaving a balance of actual bonded debt of only $637,950 held by parties other than the state, suggested a retrenchment in the cost of the public printing, and a thorough codification of the laws. "In both of my former annual messages," said he, "I urged the importance of submitting to the people an amendment to the constitution providing for biennial sessions of the legislature. At the risk of being deemed unduly tenacious, I desire to be understood as now repeating the suggestions heretofore urged on that subject. The legislature cost the people of the state last year at least $100,000, and it is probable the expense attending the present session will not fall much short of that figure. The prevalent disposition is to legislate too much, with too little reflection upon the probable consequences of frequent changes, and without apparent marked necessity for them. What is needed in our system is stability. . . . A potent remedy is biennial sessions, and I earnestly recommend a proposed constitutional amendment to that end."
At this session, which adjourned on March 8, jurisdiction over the Fort Leavenworth military reservation was ceded to the United States; an insane asylum was ordered to be established at Topeka; an issue of $36,000 in bonds was authorized to defray the expenses of the Indian invasion of 1874; a board of sinking fund commissioners was created; the sale of the lands belonging to the state university was authorized, and counties and townships were given power to issue bonds for relief purposes in certain cases, but this law was declared unconstitutional and void by the supreme court the following April.
Gov. Osborn's persistence with regard to biennial sessions was rewarded by a proposed amendment to section 25, article 2 providing that, "beginning with the session of 1877, all regular sessions shall be held once in two years, commencing on the second Tuesday in January of each alternate year thereafter." This made necessary two other amendmentsone to section 3, article 11, so that appropriations to the state institutions might be made for two years instead of one, and another amendment relating to the elections of senators and representatives. (See Constitutional Amendments.)
In the spring of 1874 the Indians commenced committing depredations on the western frontier, Ford, Barber and Comanche counties being the worst sufferers. In his message of 1875 Gov. Osborn said: "The United States troops on the borders of the state were, in July and August, nearly all withdrawn for the purpose of accompanying Gen. Miles on his expedition against the Cheyennes, and the state was left comparatively without protection. The Osages, whose reservation lies immediately south of the state, were reported to be hostile, and evidence, almost conclusive, had been obtained of their participation in the murders in Ford, Barber and Comanche counties. The appeals to me for protection were incessant and urgent. . . . I reluctantly determined to call into active service the state militia. . . . The small force in the field was kept moving actively along the southern line, and I am glad to be able to state that since it was called into the service, not a citizen has been killed by Indians on the line of its operalions. . . . Confidence in the ability and disposition to defend the border was restored, and thousands of citizens who had fled in consternation at the rumored approach of the savages returned to their homes."
The trouble with the Osages continued until late in the summer of 1875, and a spirited correspondence between Gov. Osborn and the United States interior department resulted. The commissioner of Indian affairs charged the Kansas militia with wantonly murdering some Osages, and demanded that the state reimburse the Indians for property taken from them by the troops. To this demand the governor replied in a letter to the secretary of the interior, under date of Sept. 11, 1875, as follows:
"The demand made by the commissioner of Indian affairs, and sanctioned by you, that the state should compensate the Osages for the ponies and property captured in this Barber county conflict, prompts me to urge that Kansas would be very glad to reach a complete adjustment of all pending Indian claims; and while I can never admit that she ought to pay a single dollar on this particular account, still, in order to facilitate a settlement, I assume the authority to say that the allowance in full of this demand would not be grudged by the state, in case it might be regarded as a partial offset to the very considerable amount due from the general government, or the Indian tribes which are under its control, on account of losses suffered from the depredations of such tribes.
"During its brief history, this state has expended from its treasury more than $300,000 in the defense of the people against Indian hostilities, nearly $40,000 of which was expended in the campaign of last year. Every dollar of this amount should be repaid by the United States, and I appeal to you as the head of the department having charge of Indian affairs, to recommend that Congress make provision for this act of justice.
"Besides, the citizens of this state have claims to a very considerable amount against numerous Indian tribes for losses and damages sustained by reason of their depredations. . . . The commission which sat in 1872 allowed claims of this character to the amount of $119,807,66, of which I find chargeable to the Osages the sum of $18,290.96. These are legitimate claims for property of citizens captured or destroyed by thieving Indians. They should be satisfied from the annuity fund set apart for these Indians."
This letter ended the correspondence, as the interior department no doubt discovered that it had caught a Tartar in the person of Gov. Osborn, who had readily demonstrated that he was able to take care of himself and of the interests of his state. The correspondence is given in full in a pamphlet entitled "The Osage Troubles in Barber County," published by the State of Kansas in 1875.
On Jan. 11, 1876, the sixteenth annual session of the general assembly commenced, with Lieut.-Gov. Salter as the presiding officer of the senate and Dudley C. Haskell speaker of the house. Gov. Osborn's message, presented on the opening day of the session, was introduced by a review of the grasshopper plague and the financial depression, but with hopeful optimism he saw the dawn of better times. "Notwithstanding the financial depression, common to the whole country," said he, "and the limited enterprise and progress incident to such a condition, there is a spirit of contentment and hopefulness abounding in the state such as has scarcely been manifested during its previous history."
He then discussed the state's financial condition, local taxation, the permanent school fund, the condition of the public institutions, the unsold public lands, the state board of agriculture, the Centennial exposition, giving to the legislature a vast amount of useful information on all these subjects, and recommended that a larger salary be paid the state treasurera salary commensurate with his responsibilities.
About the middle of Dec., 1875, it was discovered that some of the school bonds of Jewell, Mitchell and Republic counties were forgeries, and that nearly $20,000 had been paid for them out of the state treasury by Samuel Lappin, the state treasurer. Mr. Lappin and his brother-in-law, Charles J. Scrafford, were charged with the forgery, and on Dec. 20 Lappin resigned, John Francis being appointed to the vacancy. Both civil and criminal suits were commenced against Lappin and his bondsmen. On Dec. 30 he was given a preliminary hearing before Justice Brier, charged with forgery, counterfeiting and embezzlement, and being unable to give bond for $10,000, was committed to jail. He managed to elude the officers, however, and made his way to Chicago, where he was arrested by Sheriff Drought of Wyandotte county on Jan. 13, 1876, and on the same day George W. Glick offered a resolution in the house that "Gov. Osborn is entitled to the thanks of the people, without distinction of party, for the vigilance and independence which he has manifested in fixing the responsibility for the recent frauds upon the school fund of the state; and the tenor and spirit of his demand for the resignation of the late state treasurer, Lappin, together with his instructions for a vigorous prosecution, with a view to the reimbursement of the school fund and the punishment of the party or parties guilty of this crime, are worthy of a fearless and enlightened chief magistrate."
On Jan. 18 the governor sent a special message to the assembly submitting a report from the state board of Centennial managers. The result was the passage of an act increasing the number of managers and appropriating $25,000, "or so much thereof as may be necessary," for the erection of a state building and the arrangement of an exhibit of Kansas products at Philadelphia.
The session adjourned on March 4, after having passed acts apportioning the state into districts for 40 senators and 123 representatives; ceding to the United States jurisdiction over the Fort Hays military reservation; authorizing building and loan associations to reorganize as savings banks; fixing quarantine grounds for cattle brought into the state from Texas; amending the laws relating to the assessment and collection of taxes; and providing for the regulation and support of schools. During the session memorials to Congress were adopted relating to public lands, railroads, claims, highways, and the boundary between the States of Kansas and Missouri.
Four political conventions were held in the month of May, 1876. On the 3d the state Temperance convention met at Lawrence, selected delegates to the national Temperance convention to be held at Cleveland, Ohio, and adopted a resolution declaring "that the time has again arrived to present to the people a state ticket composed of persons who are honest, temperate and capable." The nominations were not made, however. The next day the Greenback party held a state convention at Topeka and selected delegates to the national convention to be held at Indianapolis, Ind. On the 18th the Democrats of the state met in convention at Topeka and selected delegates to the national convention at St. Louis, and on the 24th a Republican state convention selected delegates to the national convention of that party to be held in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Later in the season three state tickets were placed in the field. The first of these was the Independent Reform ticket, nominated by a convention held at Topeka on July 27, and consisted of M. E. Hudson for governor; J. A. Beal, for lieutenant-governor; W. M. Allison, for secretary of state; H. F. Sheldon, for auditor; Amos McLouth, for treasurer; D. B. Hadley, for attorneygeneral; Thomas Bartlett, for superintendent of public instruction; Wilson Shannon, for associate justice; J. M. Limbocker, A. G. Barret, S. A. Riggs, S. J. Crawford and John Ritchie, presidential electors.
The second ticket was the regular Republican, which was nominated by a state convention at Topeka on Aug. 16, and was made up as follows: For governor, George T. Anthony; lieutenant-governor, M. J. Salter (renominated); secretary of state, Thomas A. Cavanaugh (renominated); auditor, P. I. Bonebrake; treasurer, John Francis; attorney-general, Willard Davis; superintendent of public instruction, Allen B. Lemmon; associate justice, David J. Brewer; presidential electors, Walter L. Simons, J. B. Johnson, Thomas Hughes, R. W. P. Muse and W. A. Johnson.
Just a week after the Republican state convention the Democratic delegates met at Topeka and selected the following candidates for the several state offices: For governor, John Martin; lieutenant-governor, J. A. Beal; secretary of state, S. M. Palmer; auditor, H. F. Sheldon; treasurer, Amos McLouth; attorney-general, W. H. McConnell; superintendent of public instruction, Thomas Bartlett; associate justice, James Humphrey; presidential electors, Edmund G. Ross, Gottleib Schaubel, H. C. Park, George A. Reynolds and George H. English. It will be observed that on this ticket the candidates for lieutenant-governor, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction are the same as those on the Independent Reform ticket. As early as Feb. 25 the state central committees of the two organizations met, when the Independent Reform committee rejected overtures from the Democratic committee to coöperate in the state campaign. This did not prevent the latter from indorsing the candidates above named when it came to the question of making nominations.
At the election on Nov. 7, the Republican presidential electors carried the state by about 40,000 plurality. For governor, Anthony received 69,173 votes; Martin, 46,204; and Hudson, 6,020. Three Republican Congressmen were electedWilliam A. Phillips in the first district, Dudley C. Haskell in the second, and Thomas Ryan in the thirdand two amendments to the state constitution were adopted by an almost unanimous vote. (See Constitutional Amendments.)
After a successful administration of four years, during which time the state had made great progress in settlement, industrial and educational development, and the improvement of her penal and benevolent institutions, Gov. Osborn retired at the opening of the legislative session in Jan., 1877, and was succeeded by Gov. Anthony.Pages 406-417 from volume II of Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, institutions, industries, counties, cities, towns, prominent persons, etc. ... / with a supplementary volume devoted to selected personal history and reminiscence. Standard Pub. Co. Chicago : 1912. 3 v. in 4. : front., ill., ports.; 28 cm. Vols. I-II edited by Frank W. Blackmar. Transcribed July 2002 by Carolyn Ward.
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