Monuments.In all the civilized nations of the world, the custom prevails of marking historic events and places by erecting enduring monuments bearing appropriate inscriptions. Among the historic monuments are the Nelson column in Trafalgar square, London; the Arch of Triumph at Paris, France; the Washington and Bunker Hill monuments of the United States, and the universal peace monument standing on the summit of the Andes mountains on the boundary line between Chili and Argentinea large statue of Christ, cast from old Spanish cannon.
Kansas history is full of incidents worthy of such commemoration and it is not surprising that her people have erected suitable memorials to tell the story of her suffering, her patriotism and her progress. No doubt the oldest structure of this character in the state is the pile of loose stones at Council Grove, supposed to have been erected by some ancient Indian tribe to the memory of Friar Padilla, who accompanied Coronado on his expedition in 1541. Four other monuments have been erected by the Quivira Historical Society to mark supposed sites or incidents in connection with that expeditionone at Logan Grove, near Junction City; one at Herington in honor of Padilla; one in the city park at Manhattan in honor of Tatarrax, chief of the Harahey Indians, and one at Alma in honor of that tribe. In 1901 the state legislature appropriated $3,000 to mark the site of the Pawnee village in Republic county, where Lieut. Pike first raised the United States colors in Kansas, and a monument was unveiled there on the centennial anniversary of that event, Sept. 29, 1906. The old Santa Fe trail, which for half a century was the leading highway to the southwest, was marked by the State of Kansas and the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1906 by 95 granite boulders along the route, the legislature of 1905 giving $1,000 for the purpose. Pawnee Rock, a famous camping place in early days, and the walls of the old capitol at Pawnee, near Fort Riley, have been preserved by suitable legislature as historic landmarks, and the Daughters of the American Revolution have marked by suitable tablets the site of the first cabin in Topeka and of the old Constitution Hall. In 1883 the legislature appropriated $1,000 to mark the site of the Marais des Cygnes massacre of May 19, 1858, and two stones stand in the gulch 5 miles northeast of the little town of Trading Post. On Aug. 30, 1877, the 21st anniversary of the battle of Osawatomie, a monument was unveiled upon the field. It is called the John Brown monument and bears the inscription: "In commemoration of those who, on the 30th of August, 1856, gave up their lives at the battle of Osawatomie in defense of freedom. This inscription is also in commemoration of the heroism of Capt. John Brown, who commanded at the battle of Osawatomie, August 30, 1856, who died and conquered American slavery on the scaffold at Charleston, Va., Dec. 2, 1859." The monument also bears the names of Theron P. Powers, Charles Keiser, David R. Garrison, George W. Partridge and Frederick Brown, free-state men who were killed in the action.
OGDEN MONUMENT AT FORT RILEY.
(Geographical Center of U. S.)
A number of monuments have been erected by the state, or by counties or cities, to commemorate the deeds of valor of Kansas soldiers in the War of 1861-65. In 1889, through the influence of Senator P. B. Plumb, the United States secured a plat in the cemetery at Mound City, removed there the bodies of the 45 soldiers killed at Mine Creek in 1864, and erected monument and flagstaff. The inscription reads: "Erected by the United States, 1889. In memory of the officers and soldiers buried within this cemetery, who gave their lives in defense of the nation." In 1895 the legislature appropriated $5,000 to mark the positions of the Eighth Kansas regiment at Chickamauga and Chattanooga. One is located on Missionary ridge, one at Orchard Knob and one at the Viniard place. They were turned over to the state and accepted on Sept. 20, 1895.
The first soldiers' monument erected in the state is probably the one at Marysville, the county seat of Marshall county. Franklin Post, No. 68, G. A. R., erected a monument at Olathe in 1893 "In memory of our dead comrades," and in Johnson county there are also monuments at Monticello, Wilder, Gardner and Spring Hill. On Memorial day in 1896, a monument erected by Guilford G. Gage was unveiled in the cemetery at Topeka "in memory of his comrades killed in the battle of the Blue, Oct. 22, 1864." The same day a monument was dedicated at Baldwin, Douglas county. It was erected by E. D. Baker Post, No. 40, G. A. R., and the Woman's Relief Corps, No. 102, and bears the inscription: "In memory of the soldiers who fought for the preservation of the Union in the war of the great rebellion from 1861 to 1865." Soldiers' monuments have also been erected at Manhattan, Cherryvale, Marion, Wichita, Clay Center, Belle Plaine, Bluff City, Girard, Junction City, Elmdale, Fort Scott, Burlingame, Parsons, Erie, Princeton, Quenemo, Coffeyville, Garnett, Winfield and some other points. In Mount Hope cemetery, Cowley county, a monument "To the memory of unknown soldiers, sailors and marines" was dedicated on Oct. 24, 1907. It was erected by the Sunflower club, and cost $1,000. Many of these monuments were built by private subscriptions. Some of them are merely old cannon, mounted on substantial stone bases, but all bear testimony of the gratitude of the people to the "Boys in Blue," who gave four of the best years of their lives to save the country from disruption.
Several memorial monuments mark the sites of Indian battles or tell the story of Indian raids upon the frontier. In 1893 a monument was erected by the officers and enlisted men of the Seventh U. S. cavalry "To the soldiers who were killed in the battle with Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee and Drexel Mission, South Dakota, Dec. 29 and 30, 1890." The monument cost $2,000. The states of Kansas and Colorado united in erecting a monument on Beecher island, where the battle of Arickaree was fought on Sept. 17, 18 and 19, 1868. The monument was dedicated on the anniversary in 1905 and cost $5,000. Six laborers working on the Union Pacific railway were killed by Indians near Victoria, Ellis county, in 1867, and some years later their burial place was marked by a stone bearing the inscription: "This stone marks the burial place of six track laborers, who were in the employ of the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division, and, while on duty, about one mile west of here, were massacred by a band of Cheyenne Indians in October, 1867. Erected by the Union Pacific Railroad Company." On May 31, 1909, the people of Lincoln county dedicated a monument "Erected by free gifts in memory of those massacred or captured by Indians in what is now Lincoln county," with the names of the victims. The monument was unveiled by Mrs. Mary Edwards, a niece of the Mrs. Allerdice who was killed by the savages. The legislature of 1909 appropriated the sum of $1,500 for the erection of a monument to the citizens of Decatur county who were killed in the Cheyenne raid of 1878.
The Kansas boys who served in the Spanish-American war and in the Philippines have not been neglected in the erection of appropriate memorials. A tablet has been placed in the Miami county court-house at Paola and dedicated to the soldiers from that county who served in the war. At Ottawa a memorial gateway at Forest park has been erected at a cost of $2,000 "In honor of Company K, Twentieth Kansas regiment, in appreciation of their gallantry and patriotism in the Philippine islands, 1898-99." In the chapel of the University of Kansas is a bronze tablet to the memory of Lieut. Alfred Cecil Alford, "commanding Company B, Twentieth Kansas infantry, killed near Caloocan, Feb. 7, 1899." Two memorial windows have been placed in the chapel at Washburn College, Topeka, for John H. Bartlett, Company F, Twentieth Kansas, and Richard M. Coulson, Company H, Twenty-second Kansas. In Albert Taylor hall of the State Normal school at Emporia is a bronze tablet erected to four students of that institution who died while serving in the Twentieth and Twenty-second regiments.
MONUMENT TO UNION PACIFIC TRACK LABORERS.
Among the monuments erected to the memory or in honor of citizens and individuals, the one at Lawrence stands foremost. It stands in Oak Hill cemetery, and bears this inscription: "Dedicated to the memory of 150 citizens who, defenseless, fell victims to the inhuman ferocity of border guerrillas, led by the infamous Quantrill in his raid upon Lawrence, Aug. 21, 1863. Erected May 30, 1895." At Fort Leavenworth is a beautiful bronze statue of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. It is the work of the well known sculptor, Lorado Taft, and was unveiled on Sept. 14, 1889. It cost nearly $5,000, which was contributed by officers and enlisted men, employees of the quartermaster's department, citizens of Kansas and Missouri, and some of the Kansas Grand Army posts. The legislature of 1903 voted to place a marble statue of John J. Ingalls in statuary hall at Washington, D. C., and appropriated $6,000 for that purpose. A fine monument to Gov. John A. Martin was erected at Atchison by John A. Martin Post, No. 93, G. A. R., of that city "To commemorate his public and private virtues." Appropriations amounting to $1,500 were made by the legislatures of 1881 and 1883 for a monument in the Topeka cemetery to Alfred Gray, in token of his services as a member of the state board of agriculture. Burnside Corps, No. 1, Woman's Relief Corps of Kansas, erected a monument to Mary A. Sturges, an army nurse, in the Oak Grove cemetery at Kansas City, Kan., and other individual monuments commemorating deeds of valor or patriotism are those to Thomas Smith, marshal of Abilene in 1870; Hugh H. Siverd, a deputy sheriff of Cowley county, who was killed on Oct. 25, 1903, while trying to arrest two desperadoes; Edward Grafstrom, who lost his life while trying to save some of the citizens of Topeka during the flood of 1903; Carl A. Swensson, founder of Bethany College at Lindsborg; Mary T. Gray, one of the founders of the Kansas Federation of Women's clubs, and the monument to Thomas Morgan, a student in the Winfield high school, who, while skating, sacrified his life in the effort to save a schoolmate, Paul Bedilion, both boys being drowned. (See also Memorial Building.)Pages 305-309 from volume II of Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, institutions, industries, counties, cities, towns, prominent persons, etc. ... / with a supplementary volume devoted to selected personal history and reminiscence. Standard Pub. Co. Chicago : 1912. 3 v. in 4. : front., ill., ports.; 28 cm. Vols. I-II edited by Frank W. Blackmar. Transcribed July 2002 by Carolyn Ward.
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