Indian Treaties.Prior to the beginning of the 19th century, when the white settlements were few in number and scattered over a wide expanse of country, the pressure of the white race upon the domain of the native population was so slight that the question of land acquisition was hardly considered. While Kansas was a part of the province of Louisiana, the French and Spanish authorities found it expedient to enter into more or less formal agreements with the various tribes with which they came in contact, but these early treaties were merely for the purpose of establishing friendly relations with the natives, the question of land cession rarely, if ever, entering into the negotiations. Treaties of this character were made by Iberville, Bienville and Cadillac as governors of the colony, and by such early explorers as Dutisne and Bourgmont, but in many instances the records regarding these treaties are incomplete.
East of the Mississippi river, it was the policy of the British government, especially after the peace of 1763, to prohibit the whites from settling on the Indian lands, and after the Revolution the same policy was pursued by the United States for several years, the Federal government during this time recognizing the several tribes and confederacies as quasi-nationalities, devoid of sovereignty, but having a right to the soil, with power to dispose of the same, etc. But almost immediately after the acquisition of Louisiana by the United States the government began the inauguration of a different policy, looking to the removal of some of the eastern tribes west of the Mississippi. The act of 1804, which divided Louisiana into two territories, provided for the removal of those tribes that could be persuaded to make the change, but made no provision for defraying the expenses of such removals. A few of the weaker tribes accepted the invitation and removed to their new domain, but it was not until some thirty years later that the removal policy assumed any considerable proportions. By the act of Congress of May 20, 1834, a large territory, extending from the Platte and Missouri rivers to the Mexican possessions and estimated to contain over 132,000,000 acres, was set apart for the exclusive occupancy of the Indians. The house committee, in reporting this bill, said:
"The territory is to be dedicated to the use of the Indian tribes forever by a guaranty, the most sacred known among civilized communitiesthe faith of the nation . . . . Our inability to perform our treaty guarantee [heretofore] arose from the conflicts between the rights of the states and the United States. Nor is it surprising that questions arising out of such a conflict, which have bewildered wiser heads, should not he readily comprehended or appreciated by the unlettered Indians."
Some removals had been effected before the passage of this act, but after it became a law the transfer of the Indians was more rapid, and by 1837 over 50,000 Indians had been located in the domain west of the Mississippi, a few of them coming into Kansas. Of the treaties of amity made with the western tribes by representatives of the United States, little need be said, as they were generally made for temporary purposes and were often unofficial, or at least partially so, in their character. Treaties of this nature were made by Lewis and Clark, Lieut. Pike, Maj. Stephen H. Long and others. The treaties of cession played a more important part in the history of Kansas, as it was through them that tribes east of the Mississippi were assigned homes in the new Indian Territory, and in the end the domain was acquired by the government and opened to white settlers. Following is a list of the principal treaties of this character that had an influence upon Kansas lands, given by tribes in the order, as nearly as possible, in which they were negotiated.
Osage.The first cession of Osage lands in Kansas was made by the treaty of June 2, 1825, at St. Louis, Mo., William Clark, superintendent of Indian affairs, acting as commissioner for the United States. By this treaty the Great and Little Osage ceded to the United States all their lands in Missouri and Arkansas, and all lands "west of the State of Missouri and the Territory of Arkansas, north and west of the Red river, south of the Arkansas river, and east of a line to be drawn from the head sources of the Kansas southwardly through the Rock Saline," except certain reservations, etc. The northern boundary of the ceded lands was the divide between the Kansas and Arkansas rivers; the line drawn through the Rock Saline crossed the southern boundary of Kansas near the western line of Clark county, after running due south from the Arkansas river not far from Dodge City. In the treaty the boundaries of the general tribal reservation are thus described:
"Beginning at a point due east of White Hair's village and 25 miles west of the western boundary line of the State of Missouri, fronting on a north and south line so as to leave 10 miles north [south?] and 40 miles south [north?] of the point of said beginning and extending west, with the width of 50 miles to the western boundary of the lands ceded and relinquished."
In addition to this general reservation, 42 square miles were reserved to certain half-breed members of the tribe and 54 square miles were set apart to be sold and the proceeds used to establish a school fund for the Osage children. For the lands ceded and relinquished the government agreed to furnish the tribe immediately with 600 cattle, 600 hogs, 1,000 domestic fowls, 10 yoke of oxen, and such farming utensils as the superintendent of Indian affairs might direct; to erect four comfortable dwellings for the four principal chiefs at their respective villages; and to pay the tribe an annuity of $7,000 for 20 years.
On Aug. 10, 1825, at Council Grove the Osage nation granted a right of way through the reservation for the Santa Fe trail (q. v.), and by a treaty concluded at Fort Gibson on Jan. 11, 1839, the tribe ceded all interest in any reservation claimed by another tribe and reaffirmed the cession of 1825, the government agreeing to pay them an annuity of $20,000 for 20 years, erect a saw and grist mill and furnish millers for 15 years, furnish 1,000 cows and calves, 2,000 hogs, certain farming utensils, and pay all claims against the Osages for depredations, not exceeding $30,000, and was given the right to buy the 42 individual reservations of the Osage half-breeds at a price not exceeding $2 an acre.
The next treaty with the Osage nation was at Canville, Kan., Sept. 29, 1865. Owing to the fact that the annuities granted by the government under the treaties of 1825 and 1839 had expired, the tribe was in an impoverished condition and readily consented to sell 30 miles off the east end of their reservation and a strip of 20 miles wide off the north side of the remainder, the latter to be sold in trust for their benefit. The government agreed to place $300,000 to the credit of the Osages, that sum being the purchase price agreed upon for the 30 miles off the east end of their lands, and to pay the tribe five per cent. upon that amount semi-annually, in money or goods as they might choose. The Indians promptly gave possession of the ceded lands, but the government was not so prompt in placing the $300,000 to their credit or in paying the interest. Consequently, in 1877 the Osage nation employed Charles Ewing, an attorney, to look after their interests in the matter. On June 16, 1880, President Hayes approved an act of Congress providing that the sum of $1,028,785 be placed to the credit of the tribe. Ewing's fee in this case was over $70,000. In the meantime Congress had, on July 15, 1870, passed an act providing for the sale of the remaining Osage lands in Kansas, and on March 27, 1871, the secretary of the interior was authorized to designate a new reservation in the Indian Territory.
Kansa.On June 3, 1825, the day following the treaty with the Osage nation, the chiefs and head men of the Kansa tribe entered into a treaty with William Clark, superintendent of Indian affairs, at St. Louis, Mo., by which the tribe ceded to the United States all claim to lands in and west of the State of Missouri, the boundaries of the cession being described as follows: "Beginning at the entrance of the Kansa river into the Missouri; thence north to the northwest corner of the State of Missouri; thence westwardly to the Nodewa river, 30 miles from its entrance into the Missouri; thence to the entrance of the Big Nemahaw river into the Missouri, and with that river to its source; thence to the source of the Kansas river, leaving the old village of the Pania Republic to the west; thence on the ridge dividing the waters of the Kansas river from those of the Arkansas to the western boundary line of the State of Missouri, and with that line to the place of beginning."
This cession included all the northern half of Kansas east of the Araphoe and Cheyenne lands, except a triangular tract of the Pawnee country lying northwest of the divide between the Prairie Dog creek and the north fork of the Solomon river, and a reservation "beginning leagues up the Kansas river and to include their village on that river; extending west 30 miles in width through the lands ceded."
The east line of this reserve was about 10 miles west of the present city of Topeka, and it included westward from that line townships 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12, the northern boundary of the reserve being 35 miles from the Nebraska line. At that time the sources of the Kansas river were not definitely known, and from government maps of Indian cessions it appears that the Kansa cession extended no farther west than the headwaters of the Solomon, the country farther up the Republican fork belonging to the Pawnees.
A second treaty with the Kansa Indians was concluded at the Methodist mission in Kansas on Jan. 14, 1846. By its provisions the tribe ceded 2,000,000 acres off the east end of their reserve, the full 30 miles in width and extending west until the designated quantity of land was obtained. The government agreed, in the event there was not sufficient timber on the remaining portion of the reservation, to lay off a new reservation near the western boundary of the 2,000,000 acres ceded. Pursuant to this stipulation, when it was found that there was a scarcity of timber on the diminished reserve, the government assigned to the tribe an additional tract in the vicinity of Council Grove. Part of this tract was claimed by the Shawnees, but that tribe relinquished its claim in 1854, giving the Kansa Indians a clear title.
On Oct. 5, 1859, at the Kansas agency, a treaty was negotiated with that tribe by which the reservation was reduced to a tract 9 by 14 miles in the southwest corner of the reservation near Council Grove and the remainder of the reserve was ceded to the United States in trust, to be sold for the benefit of the tribe. An act of Congress on May 8, 1872, provided for the sale of the remaining "trust" lands and the "diminished reserve," and the removal of the tribe to the Indian Territory. Another act, approved on June 5, of the same year, confirmed a reservation selected in the Indian Territory, and by the act of June 23, 1874, the lands acquired from the Kansa Indians were ordered to be sold to actual settlers.
Shawnee.Contemporaneous with the Osage and Kansa cessions, which gave to the United States about five-sixths of the present State of Kansas, other tribes ceded lands in Nebraska, thus giving the nation a large tract of territory to be set apart for the use and occupancy of the Indian tribes farther east. And almost immediately upon the acquisition of these western lands the government began negotiations for the removal of the eastern tribes to the new territory. On Nov. 7, 1825, at St. Louis, Mo., a treaty was concluded with the Shawnee tribe living near Cape Girardeau upon a tract of land acquired by Spanish grant, signed by Baron de Carondelet, governor of Louisiana, and dated Jan. 4, 1793. By the St. Louis treaty this tract was ceded to the United States, and the Shawnees were assigned another tract, equal to 50 square miles, "Commencing 2 miles northwest of the southwest corner of Missouri; thence north 25 miles; thence west 100 miles; thence south 25 miles; thence east 100 miles to the place of beginning."
This tract happened to overlap the Osage lands in the Indian Territory and was not acceptable to the Shawnees, who were then assigned another reservation, "Beginning at a point in the western boundary of the State of Missouri, 3 miles south of where said boundary crosses the mouth of the Kansas river; thence continuing south on said boundary 25 miles; thence due west 120 miles; thence due north until said line shall intersect the southern boundary of the Kansas reservation thence due east coinciding with the southern boundary of said reservation to the termination thereof; thence due north coinciding with the eastern boundary of said reservation to the southern shore of the Kansas river; thence along said southern shore of said river to where a line from the place of beginning drawn due west shall intersect the same."
As thus established the Shawnee reservation included the present counties of Johnson and Douglas, a little of the northern portions of Miami, Franklin and Lyon, the northern part of Osage, the southern part of Shawnee, the greater part of Wabaunsee, and portions of Morris and Geary, the northwest corner of the reserve being about 3 miles southeast of Junction City.
By a treaty concluded with the Shawnee chiefs at Washington, D. C., May 10, 1854, all the above described reservation was ceded to the United States except 200,000 acres, which also included about 25,000 acres to be allotted to the "absentee Shawnees" upon their return to the tribe. Many of these never returned and the land was ordered to be sold to actual settlers by an act of Congress, approved by President Johnson on April 7, 1869. Another act, approved by President Hayes on March 3, 1879, provided for the disposition of the entire reserve and the removal of the Shawnees to a new reservation outside the state.
Delawares.As early as Oct. 3, i8i8, the Delawares of Ohio, by a treaty at St. Mary's in that state, ceded their Ohio lands to the United States and were promised peaceable possession of reservation west of the Mississippi. The Ohio Delawares first joined their tribesmen near Cape Girardeau, Mo., but by the treaty of Sept. 24, 1829, the Missouri lands were ceded to the United States and the tribe was assigned a reservation "in the fork of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, extending up the Kansas river to the Kansa line and up the Missouri river to Camp Leavenworth, and thence by a line drawn westwardly, leaving a space of 10 miles wide north of the Kansas boundary line for an outlet," etc. These lands were surveyed the following year, and by the treaty at Castor Hill, Mo., Oct. 26, 1832, the cession and reservation were reaffirmed. The Delaware lands in Kansas included the present county of Wyandotte, the greater part of the counties of Leavenworth and Jefferson, and small portions of Jackson and Shawnee.
By a treaty concluded at Washington, D. C., May 6, 1854, the Delawares granted the right of way for certain roads and railroads through their reservation, and ceded to the United States all their reserve except 39 square miles which had been sold to the Wyandots (q. v.) and excepting that part of said country lying east and south of a line beginning at a point on the line between the land of the Delaware and half-breed Kansas, 40 miles in a direct line west of the boundary between the Delawares and Wyandots; thence north 10 miles; thence in an easterly course to a point on the south bank of Big Island creek, which shall also be on the bank of the Missouri river where the usual high-water line of said creek intersects the high-water line of said river."
By the same treaty 4 square miles were to be confirmed to the Munsees or Christian Indians upon payment of $2.50 per acre. This tract was sold by the Christian Indians to A. J. Isaacs and the sale was confirmed by act of Congress on June 8, 1858.
Under the provisions of the treaty of May 30, 1860, which was concluded at Sarcoxieville, on the Delaware reservation, a portion of the reservation was allotted to them in severalty and the remainder was sold to the Leavenworth, Pawnee & Western Railroad company. This sale was confirmed by a treaty at Fort Leavenworth on July 2, 1861, and by a supplementary treaty at the Delaware agency on July 4, 1866, the entire reservation passed from the hands of the Delawares, whose tribal existence was at that time merged with the Cherokee nation.
Ottawa.Two bands of this tribethe Blanchard's Fork and Roche de Boeufmet with representatives of the United States at the Miami bay of Lake Erie, near the city of Toledo, Ohio, Aug. 30, 1831, and entered into a treaty by which they ceded their lands in Ohio and accepted a reservation in Kansas. The Roche de Boeuf band received 40,000 acres and the Blanchard's fork band 34,000 acres. The present city of Ottawa, the county seat of Franklin county, stands near the center of this reserve. After the removal to Kansas the two bands became confederated. On June 24, 1862, the reservation was ceded to the United States under certain conditions, one of which was that the tribal relations of the Ottawas were to be dissolved at the end of five years, when they were to become citizens of the United States and receive allotments of land in severalty. By a treaty on Feb. 23, 1867, which was concluded at Washington, D. C., a portion of the reservation was sold to the Ottawa University and the tribe was assigned lands in the Indian Territory. Thus matters stood until June 10, 1872, when Congress passed a law providing for the sale of the unsold portions of the Ottawa reserve, including the lands sold to the Ottawa University under the treaty of 1867.
Illinois Confederacy.At Castor Hill, St. Louis, Mo., Oct. 27, 1832, a treaty was concluded with the Kaskaskias, Peorias and some minor tribes of the Illinois confederacy, by which they ceded certain lands in Missouri and Illinois and were assigned a reservation in Kansas, to consist of 150 square miles of land "to include the present Peoria village, west of the State of Missouri, on the waters of the Osage river, to be bounded as follows, to-wit: North by the lands assigned to the Shawanoes; west by the western line of the reservation made for the Piankeshaws, Weas and Peorias; and east by the lands assigned the Piankeshaws and Weas."
Prior to the negotiations of this treaty the government had made preparations for quartering the Piankeshaws and Weas in Kansas, and some had actually taken up their abode there. On Oct. 29, 1832, a treaty was concluded with these bands at Castor Hill, whereby they accepted a reservation "within the limits of the survey of the lands set apart for the Piankeshaws, Weas and Peorias, bounded east by the western boundary line of the State of Missouri for 15 miles; north by the southern boundary of the lands assigned to the Shawanoes; west by the lands assigned to the Peorias and Kaskaskias, and south by the southern line originally surveyed for the Piankeshaws, Weas and Peorias, said tract being intended to include the present villages of the Piankeshaws and Weas."
The reservation of the tribes of the Illinois confederacy embraced a tract 14 miles wide by 32 miles long, 250 sections of which were assigned to the Piankeshaw and Wea bands. The present city of Paola is not far from the center of the old reservation, the northern boundary of which is nearly represented by the third standard parallel. By the treaty of Feb. 23, 1867, these lands were ceded back to the United States and the confederated tribes were given another reservation in the Indian Territory.
Kickapoo.By a treaty concluded with this tribe at Castor Hill on Oct. 24, 1832, certain lands were ceded to the United States and the tribe was given a reservation of 1,200 square miles in Kansas. The boundaries as described in the treaty were not satisfactory to the Indians, and on Nov. 26, 1832, a supplementary treaty was entered into fixing the boundaries as follows: "Beginning on the Delaware line where said line crosses the left branch of Salt creek; thence down said creek to the Missouri river; thence up the Missouri river 30 miles when measured on a straight line; thence westwardly to a point 20 miles from the Delaware line, so as to include in the lands assigned the Kickapoo at least 1,200 square miles."
Near the northeast corner of this reserve as thus established now stands the little city of Troy, and the city of Hiawatha, the county seat of Brown county, is very near the north line of the old Kickapoo reservation. The southern boundary ran from the Missouri river near Fort Leavenworth in a northwesterly direction to a point not far from the southeast corner of Nemaha county.
At Washington, D. C., May 18, 1854, a treaty was made with the Kickapoos by which they ceded a portion of their reserve, retaining 150,000 acres in the western part, and they also granted right of way for roads and railroads to pass through their lands. A further diminution of the reserve was made by the treaty of June 28, 1862, which was concluded at the Kickapoo agency in Kansas, and which set apart a certain tract to be held in common and authorized the sale of the remainder of the reserve to the Atchison & Pike's Peak Railroad company. The tract reserved for the Indians is in township 4 south, ranges 15 and 16 east, a little west of the city of Horton. By an act of Congress, approved on July 28, 1882, the sale of the tracts reserved by the treaty of 1862 for a mill site, mission and agency was authorized, and by an executive order of Aug. 15, 1883, President Arthur set apart a Kickapoo reserve in the Indian Territory.
Quapaw.A treaty with the Quapaws at Fort Gibson, Ind. Ter., May 13, 1833, assigned that tribe a reservation of 150 square miles "west of the state line of Missouri and between the lands of the Senecas and Shawnees not previously assigned to any other tribe." Of this reservation a strip about half a mile wide in the southeast corner of Kansas extended from the Missouri line to the Neosho river. It was ceded to the United States by the treaty concluded at Washington, D. C., Feb. 23, 1867, except 320 acres which were reserved and patented to Samuel G. Vallier.
Pawnee.From the time of the Louisiana purchase the Pawnees never manifested hostility toward the United States, and their lands in Kansas and Nebraska were acquired with little difficulty. On Oct. 9, 1833, at the Grand Pawnee village on the Platte river, the confederated Pawnee bands ceded to the nation all right and title to lands claimed by them south of the Platte river. That portion of the cession lying in Kansas is a triangular tract, bounded on the north by the line separating Kansas from Nebraska, on the west by a line running near the center of range 36 west (near the western boundary of Rawlins and Thomas counties), and on the south, or southeast, along the divide between the Solomon river and Prairie Dog creek, extending eastward to the state line in range 11 west.
Cherokee.By the treaties of May 6, 1828, and Feb. 14, 1833, this tribe had been granted lands west of the Mississippi, but in the negotiation of the treaty of New Echota, Ga., Dec. 29, 1835, the Indians set up the claim that the lands thus granted were insufficient for their use and the United States assigned to them an additional tract of land "situated between the west line of the State of Missouri and the Osage reservation, beginning at the southeast corner of the same and running north along the east line of the Osage lands 50 miles to the northeast corner thereof; thence east to the west line of the State of Missouri; thence with said line south 50 miles; and thence west to the place of beginning."
The tract above described is situated in the southeast corner of Kansas, embracing approximately the present counties of Cherokee and Crawford, and was known as the "Cherokee Neutral Lands." By the treaty of July 19, 1866, the Neutral Lands were ceded in trust to the United States, with the condition that they be sold for the benefit of the Cherokee nation, and at the same time the Delaware, Chippewa and other tribes were merged with the Cherokee. The lands were sold to James F. Joy, and on April 27, 1868, at Washington, D. C., a treaty with the Cherokees reaffirmed the sale. (See Neutral Lands.)
Chippewa.Henry R. Schoolcraft, acting as commissioner for the United States, negotiated a treaty with the chiefs and head men of the Swan Creek and Black River bands of the Chippewa tribe at Washington, D. C., May 9, 1836, when these bands ceded their lands in Michigan, and the government agreed to give them a reservation of 13 square miles west of the Mississippi river or northwest of St. Anthony's Falls, to be located by an agent of the government. The reservation selected was situated south of the Shawnee lands, between the lands assigned the Ottawas and Sauks and Foxes, near the western line of Franklin county. When the tribal existence of the Chippewa was merged with the Cherokee nation by the treaty of July 19, 1860, their reservation reverted to the United States and was opened to white settlers.
Sauk & Fox.In most of the treaties made with the Sauk and Fox, especially the earlier treaties, the Iowa Indians were also interested. At Fort Leavenworth Sept. 17, 1836, William Clark, superintendent of Indian affairs, concluded a treaty with the Sauks and Foxes and Iowas, by which those tribes ceded their lands in Missouri to the United States. By article 2 of the treaty the United States granted to these tribes "the small strip of land on the south side of the Missouri river, lying between the Kickapoo northern boundary line and the Grand Nemahar river, and extending from the Missouri back and westwardly with the said Kickapoo line and the Grand Nemahar, making 400 sections to be divided between the Ioways and the Missouri band of Sacks and Foxes, the lower half to the Sacks and Foxes and the upper half to the Ioways."
This reservation included an irregular shaped tract of land in the northeast corner of Kansas and the southeast corner of Nebraska. The west line of the reserve was about the middle of range 15 east, and the city of Hiawatha stands near the southern border.
By a treaty concluded at Washington, D. C., May 17, 1854, the Iowas relinquished their title to the reservation established by the treaty of Sept. 17, 1836, except a tract "Beginning at the mouth of the Great Nemehaw river, where it empties into the Missouri; thence down the Missouri to the mouth of Noland's creek; thence due south one mile; thence due west to the south fork of the Great Nemehaw river, and thence with the meanders of said river to the place of beginning."
The tract of land thus excepted from the cession lies partly in Kansas and partly in Nebraska. At the same time a half-section was set apart for the Presbyterian board of foreign missions, and another half-section was reserved for John B. Roy.
On Oct. 1, 1859, at the Sauk and Fox agency, Kan. Ter., the tribe reserved 153,600 acres of their lands in Osage and Franklin counties and ceded the remainder to the United States to be opened to white settlers. The boundaries of the portion reserved were described in the treaty as follows: "Beginning at a point on the northern boundary line of their reservation 6 miles west of the northeast corner of the same; running thence due south to the southern boundary of the same; thence west along the southern boundary 12 miles; thence due north to the northern boundary of said reserve 20 miles; thence east along the said boundary 12 miles to the place of beginning." The city of Lyndon, the county seat of Osage county, is near the center of this diminished reserve.
By a treaty concluded at the Great Nemaha agency in Nebraska on March 6, 1861, the Iowas ceded to the Sauks and Foxes all that part of the reserve in northeastern Kansas and southeastern Nebraska lying south of Robert's creek, after which the Sauks and Foxes ceded the reservation to the United States. Congress, by the act of Aug. 15, 1876, provided for the sale of 10 sections off the west end of this reservepartly in Kansas and partly in Nebraskaand by the act of March 3, 1885, the secretary of the interior was directed to survey and sell all the Sauk and Fox and Iowa lands in Nebraska and Kansas.
Pottawatomie.The lands held by this tribe in the State of Indiana were ceded to the United States by the treaty of Washington, D. C., Feb. 11, 1837, and the Indians agreed to remove to a reservation in Kansas within three years. The lands assigned to them were situated between the Shawnee reservation and that of the New York Indians, just west of the Miami reserve. The city of Garnett, the county seat of Anderson county, stands near the center of the original Pottawatomie reservation. In 1842 the Sauks and Foxes were granted a reserve which overlapped the Pottawatomie lands. This led to a controversy, and by the treaties of June 5 and 17, 1846, concluded near Council Bluffs, the Pottawatomies ceded their claims to lands in Iowa and were given a new reservation including the southern half of Jackson county, the greater part of Shawnee, the southeastern part of Pottawatomie and the northeastern part of Wabaunseea tract 30 miles square, embracing the lands in ranges 11 to 15 and townships 8 to 12, inclusive.
On Nov. 15, 1861, at the Pottawatomie agency in Kansas, was made a treaty by which 576,000 acres of this reserve were to he held in common, 77,357 acres were set apart for the "Prairie Band," a portion was sold to the Leavenworth, Pawnee & Western Railroad company, and a portion was allotted in severalty to certain individuals. The part set apart to be held in common is located in Jackson county, now known as the Pottawatomie reserve, and is inhabited by what is left of the Prairie Band. On Feb. 27, 1867, the tribe was assigned a tract 30 miles square in the Indian Territory, but with the understanding that this arrangement was not to affect the rights of those holding their lands in common under the previous treaty.
New York Tribes.At Buffalo creek, N. Y., Jan. 15, 1838, the Oneidas, Tuscaroras, Senecas, Cayugas and some minor tribes entered into an agreement by treaty to relinquish all their lands in the State of New York and accept a reservation in Kansas. Accordingly a tract of land was set apart for their use and occupancy, embracing practically the counties of Bourbon, Allen, Woodson and the greater part of Greenwood, but they refused to occupy it. A few of the New York Indians came to Kansas and were assigned a small reservation in the northeastern part of the present Bourbon county, but the lands were all finally sold by order of Congress under the provisions of the acts of Feb. 19, 1873, June 23, 1874, and April 17, 1878.
Miami.At the forks of the Wabash river in Indiana, Nov. 11, 1838, a treaty was negotiated with the Miamis by which they agreed to relinquish their claims to certain lands in Indiana and accept in exchange therefor a reservation in Kansas. The tract assigned to them lay between the lands of the Illinois tribes on the north and the New York tribes on the south, extending from the Missouri line to the Pottawatomie reservation, in what is now Linn and Miami counties, and contained 500,000 acres. By a second treaty at the forks of the Wabash on Nov. 28, 1840, the reserve was to be held in trust for the chief Me-shing-go-me-sia and his band, and by the treaty of Washington, D. C., June 5, 1854, the reservation, except 70,000 acres for the use of the tribe, 640 acres for school purposes and 50 sections reserved to individuals, was ceded to the United States. By an act of Congress, approved by President Grant on June 1, 1872, the reserve was partitioned among the members of the band and patents issued in severalty, and by the act of March 3, 1873, the remainder of the reserve was ordered to be sold, the Miamis at that time being merged with the Kaskaskias, etc.
Wyandot.At Upper Sandusky, Ohio, March 17, 1842, the Wyandot Indians ceded their lands in Ohio, and on Dec. 14, 1843, they purchased 39 square miles off the east end of the Delaware reservation in Kansas, where Kansas City, Kan., now stands. The purchase of this tract was approved by act of Congress on July 25, 1848. By the treaty of Washington, D. C., April 1, 1850, the 39 sections were ceded to the United States for a consideration of $1.25 per acre, and by the treaty of Jan. 31, 1855, the lands were ordered to be subdivided and reconveyed to the Wyandots as individuals. On Feb. 27, 1867, a portion of the Wyandot tribe was assigned lands in the Indian Territory.
Arapaho and Cheyenne.A few years before the organization of Kansas as a territory some of the western tribes became involved in a dispute as to their respective domains. To settle this controversy and fix definitely the boundaries of the Sioux, Gros Ventres, Mandan, Blackfoot, Crow, Arickaree, Cheyenne and Arapaho, a treaty was arranged with these tribes at Fort Laramie Sept. 17, 1851. By this treaty the boundaries of the Cheyenne and Arapaho were thus described: "Commencing at the Red Bute, or the place where the road leaves the north fork of the Platte river; thence up the north fork of the Platte river to its source; thence along the main range of the Rocky mountains to the headwaters of the Arkansas river; thence down the Arkansas river to the crossing of the Santa Fe road; thence in a northwesterly direction to the forks of the Platte river; and thence up the Platte river to the place of beginning."
Within these boundaries lies that portion of Kansas north of the Arkansas river and west of the cessions of the Osage, Kansa and Pawnee tribes. This tract was ceded to the United States by the Cheyenne and Arapaho in a treaty concluded at Fort Wise, Kan. Ter., Feb. 18, 1861.
Oto and Missouri.These two tribes never cut much figure in Kansas history. By a treaty concluded at Washington, D. C., March 15, 1854, they were given a reserve consisting of a strip 10 miles wide on the Big Blue river. About 3 miles of this strip was in the northern part of Marshall and Washington counties, extending from about the middle of range 4 to the middle of range 8 east. After several supplementary treaties their reserve was ordered to be sold by act of Congress of May 3, 1881, and the Oto and Missouri Indians were given a new reserve in the Cherokee nation.
Munsee.This tribe, known also as the "Christian Indians," was allowed to purchase 4 square miles from the Delawares by the treaty of May 6, 1854. (See Delawares.) This tract was sold to A. J. Isaacs on June 8, 1858, when a new home was found for the Munsees with the Chippewas a little south of Leavenworth, and on July 16, 1859, the tribe was merged with the Chippewas.
Comanche and Kiowa.The United States came into possession of the lands claimed by these tribes, including that portion of Kansas west of the Osage reservation as established by the treaty of June 2, 1825, and south of the Arkansas river, by a treaty concluded at a camp on the Little Arkansas river, Oct. 18, 1865. At the same time the two tribes were given a reservation in the Indian Territory. With the exception of the reservations previously established, this was the last Indian cession of Kansas lands.Pages 917-929 from volume I of Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, institutions, industries, counties, cities, towns, prominent persons, etc. ... / with a supplementary volume devoted to selected personal history and reminiscence. Standard Pub. Co. Chicago : 1912. 3 v. in 4. : front., ill., ports.; 28 cm. Vols. I-II edited by Frank W. Blackmar. Transcribed May 2002 by Carolyn Ward.
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