Greek Church.The eastern Orthodox church, known historically as the Eastern church, the full title of which is Holy Orthodox, Catholic, Apostolic, Oriental church, and in modern times called the Greek Orthodox church, but which is popularily known as the Greek church, are the modern representatives of the Byzantine Empire. When the Roman Empire became separated, a distinction grew up between the Eastern and Western churches, which appeared both in the ritual and the doctrine. This grew more and more apparent until a complete separation was effected in 1054, between the patriarch or bishop of Rome and the four Eastern patriarchs. The Eastern church at that time included four ecclesiastical divisionsthe patriarchs of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch and Alexandria, coördinate in authority although the precedence was always given to the patriarch of Constantinople.
When Constantinople was captured by the Turks in 1453 and the Turkish government assumed the right to approve the election of the patriarchs, a diversity of ecclesiastical organization developed. The patriarchs of Alexandria, Jerusalem and Antioch preserved their ecclesiastical independence, although nominally they still accorded precedence to the patriarch of Constantinople. When the Russian Empire developed, the Russian church, which had hitherto been subordinate to the Constantinople patriarch, organized as a separate ecclesiastical government. In 1589 the Russian Patriarchate was established, and in 1721 it took form under the authority of the Holy Governing Synod, with headquarters at St. Petersburg. After Greece became independent, the Greek church was established as an independent organization, and in 1883 the Holy synod of Greece was perfected.
The doctrine of the Eastern Orthodox churches is based upon the Holy Scriptures, the Holy traditions and the Niceo-Constantinopolitan creed in its original wording, without the work Filioque, and holds that the Scriptures should be interpreted strictly in accordance with the teachings of the seven Ecumenical Councils and the Holy Fathers. These churches recognize Christ as the only head of the earthly as well as the heavenly church, and do not accept the dogma of the Pope as the representative of Christ on earth. Their sacraments are baptism, anointing, communion, penance, holy orders, marriage and holy unction. The doctrine of transubstantiation is accepted. The church rejects the doctrine of purgatory, but believes prayer beneficial both for the living and dead. The doctrine of predestination is rejected and the church believes that for justification both faith and works are necessary. The ministry consists of three orders: deacons, priests and bishops. Deacons assist in the work of the parish and in the service of the sacraments. Priests and deacons are of two orderssecular and monastic. Marriage is allowed for candidates for the deaconate and priesthood, but is forbidden after ordination. As a rule the episcopate is confined to members of the monastic order. The parishes are usually in care of the secular priests.
In the United States the Eastern Orthodox churches have 411 organizations. In Kansas these churches are represented by the Greek Orthodox and the Servian Orthodox churches, which were not established until in the '90s. In 1910 these churches have two organizations, one each with a total membership of 750. This late establishment of the Eastern Orthodox churches in Kansas is largely due to the fact that the state has never had a large population of people from the countries where this religion is established.Pages 787-788 from volume I of Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, institutions, industries, counties, cities, towns, prominent persons, etc. ... / with a supplementary volume devoted to selected personal history and reminiscence. Standard Pub. Co. Chicago : 1912. 3 v. in 4. : front., ill., ports.; 28 cm. Vols. I-II edited by Frank W. Blackmar. Transcribed May 2002 by Carolyn Ward.
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