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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Pawnee County

1878

Map of Pawnee County - 1878

The reports from this county are meager, being mainly confined to Larned and Garfield townships. - First settlements: Larned township, 1872, by George B. Cox; Garfield township, March, 1873, by a colony from Geneva, Ohio; Pleasant Valley township, 1873, Adam Peabody; Brown's Grove township, 1875, Gallatin Brown. - First church buildings: Larned township, 1873, at Larned, Union church, Methodist and Presbyterian; Garfield township, at Garfield, 1876, Congregational. - First school houses: Larned township, at Larned, by district No. 1; Garfield township, at Garfield, 1877, district No. 3. - First marriage: D. A. Bright and Emma Post, at Larned, September 15th, 1873. - First births: a daughter to Mrs. R. J. Garrison, at Larned, February 22nd, 1873; at Garfield, a daughter to Mr. and Mrs. William Cary, August, 1873. - First business established: Larned township, general merchandise, June, 1872, Colgrove & Russell; Garfield township, groceries and provisions, 1873, E. W. Grover. - First post offices: Larned, 1872, George B. Cox, postmaster; Garfield, June 14th, 1873, E. W. Grover, postmaster; a post office at the military post of Fort Larned was established in 1862. The county was organized in 1872. Population in 1870, 179; in 1875, 1,006; increase in five years, 827; population in 1878, 6,114; increase in eight years, 5,935. Rural population, 4,892; city or town population, 1,222; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 80.

* POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop.
Brown's Grove 564 Garfield 812 Larned City 1,010
Larned 1,766 Pawnee 624 Pleasant Valley 848
Walnut 490 ----- ----- ----- -----

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 25 per cent.; upland, 75 per cent.; forest (Government survey), 1 per cent.; prairie, 99 per cent. Average width of bottoms, four miles; general surface of the uplands, gently undulating.

Timber. - There is no timber on the Arkansas, and very little on Pawnee fork. Varieties: elm, ash and box elder, principally. The increase in cultivated timber is large, and the farmers generally are giving attention to the subject. The workings of the timber-culture act are said to be unsuccessful. Where the proper varieties are selected, and are properly cared for, the trees do well.

Principal Streams. - The Arkansas river runs northeast through the south half of the county. Pawnee fork runs nearly east, emptying into the Arkansas at Larned. The county is well supplied with springs; well water is obtained at a depth of from 6 to 24 feet.

Coal. - There are some indications of coal on the high lands between the Arkansas and Pawnee rivers, but it is generally believed that there are no coal beds in the county.

Building Stone, etc. - Sandstone is found in abundance on Pawnee fork; has been tested, and reported of good quality. Limestone is reported in several localities. Gypsum reported in Pawnee township, fire and pottery clay and ochre in Larned township, and fire clay and ochre in Pleasant Valley township.

Railroad Connections. - The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad runs through the county from northeast to southwest, following the course of the Arkansas. Stations, Larned and Garfield.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 483,840; taxable acres, 233,846; under cultivation, 40,776.25; cultivated to taxable acres, 17.44 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 22,396.50.

GOOD YIELDS. - Statements by S. C. Olmsted, Brown's Grove:

Winter Wheat. - Henry C. Seiverling, of Brown's Grove, planted 20 acres of Golden Amber wheat, on Section 34, Township 21, Range 20, on the 1st of October, and harvested it the last of June. The ground was upland, soil black loam, and it was thoroughly harrowed and the seed drilled in. The yield was 35 3/4 bushels to the acre. This wheat weighed 66 pounds to the bushel. Less than a bushel of seed to the acre was used.

Winter Wheat. - Red May variety, raised by O. Haverly, of Brown's Grove, on 19 1/2 acres of bottom land in the Pawnee valley, on Section 28, Township 21, Range 19, the yield being 42 3/4 bushels per acre. The seed was sown broadcast in the latter part of August, and harrowed in, one bushel to the acre being used. The crop was harvested June 10, 1878. This wheat weighed 65 pounds to the bushel.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat ----- ----- ----- 748.00 3,131.00 8,968.00 19,207.00
Rye ----- ----- ----- 94.00 98.00 283.00 670.00
Spring Wheat ----- ----- 33.00 4.00 155.00 321.00 1,662.00
Corn ----- ----- 1,300.00 2,659.50 2,657.00 5,678.00 9,157.00
Barley ----- ----- ----- 124.00 289.00 459.00 2,387.00
Oats ----- ----- 45.00 555.75 587.00 407.00 2,194.00
Buckwheat ----- ----- ----- 1.00 19.75 3.00 13.00
Irish Potatoes ----- ----- 59.00 64.50 57.60 78.00 278.00
Sweet Potatoes ----- ----- ----- 4.75 5.45 17.00 34.25
Sorghum ----- ----- ----- 13.50 39.40 89.00 141.00
Castor Beans ----- ----- ----- 5.00 0.50 2.25 62.00
Cotton ----- ----- ----- ----- 2.00 1.00 -----
Flax ----- ----- ----- 26.50 2.00 ----- 177.00
Hemp ----- ----- ----- ----- 1.00 1.00 -----
Tobacco ----- ----- ----- ----- 3.00 0.50 1.00
Broom Corn ----- ----- ----- 9.00 15.87 249.00 929.00
Millet and Hungarian ----- ----- 15.00 84.00 176.00 1,501.00 2,816.00
Timothy Meadow ----- ----- ----- 7.00 ----- 7.00 1.00
Clover Meadow ----- ----- ----- 9.00 6.12 ----- 1.00
Prairie Meadow ----- ----- ----- 120.00 ----- ----- -----
Timothy Pasture ----- ----- ----- ----- 1.00 ----- 35.00
Clover Pasture ----- ----- ----- ----- 7.50 ----- 19.00
Blue-Grass Pasture ----- ----- ----- ----- 1.50 ----- -----
Prairie Pasture ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- 315.00 992.00








Total ----- ----- 1,452.00 4,529.50 7,255.69 18,379.75 40,776.25

Increase in four years, 2708+ per cent.
Average increase per annum, 677+ per cent.

RANK of Pawnee County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.








Wheat ----- ----- 64 61 55 36 29
Corn ----- ----- 63 62 63 62 61
Total Acreage in all Crops ----- ----- 64 64 64 62 58








STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

CROPS. ACRES IN
1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
VALUE OF
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.







Winter Wheat - bu. 19,207.00 10,239.00 in. 460,968.00 299,544.00 in. $271,971.12 $142,831.92 in.
Rye - bu. 670.00 387.00 in. 16,750.00 9,675.00 in. 5,025.00 2,690.25 in.
Spring Wheat - bu. 1,662.00 1,341.00 in. 26,592.00 20,172.00 in. 13,030.08 7,894.08 in.
Corn - bu. 9,157.00 3,479.00 in. 183,140.00 69,580.00 in. 69,593.20 29,847.20 in.
Barley - bu. 2,387.00 1,928.00 in. 85,932.00 72,162.00 in. 32,654.16 27,834.66 in.
Oats - bu. 2,194.00 1,787.00 in. 109,700.00 95,455.00 in. 30,716.00 25,730.25 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 13.00 10.00 in. 182.00 146.00 in. 145.60 116.80 in.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 278.00 200.00 in. 20,850.00 16,950.00 in. 9,382.50 5,482.50 in.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 34.25 17.25 in. 3,425.00 1,895.00 in. 3,425.00 1,895.00 in.
Sorghum - gall. 141.00 52.00 in. 16,215.00 5,980.00 in. 8,107.50 2,990.00 in.
Castor Beans - bu. 62.00 59.75 in. 744.00 726.00 in. 930.00 912.00 in.
Cotton - lbs. ----- 1.00 de. ----- 170.00 de. ----- 17.00 de.
Flax - bu. 177.00 177.00 in. 1,770.00 1,770.00 in. 1,770.00 1,770.00 in.
Hemp - lbs. ----- 1.00 de. ----- 920.00 de. ----- 55.25 de.
Tobacco - lbs. 1.00 .50 in. 740.00 370.00 in. 74.00 37.00 in.
Broom Corn - lbs. 929.00 680.00 in. 696,750.00 497,550.00 in. 26,128.13 18,658.13 in.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 2,816.00 1,315.00 in. 8,448.00 5,446.00 in. 42,240.00 27,230.00 in.
Timothy Meadow - tons 1.00 6.00 de. 1.00 6.00 de. 6.00 36.00 de.
Clover Meadow - tons 1.00 1.00 in. 1.50 1.50 in. 6.75 6.75 in.
Prairie Meadow - tons ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Timothy Pasture acres 35.00 35.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture - acres 19.00 19.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Prairie Pasture - acres 992.00 677.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----







Total 40,776.25 22,396.50 in. ----- ----- $515,205.04 $295,818.34 in.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $229.60; poultry and eggs, $627.56.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1st, 1878, 3,976 bushels, or an average of 3 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - No cheese reported. Butter manufactured in 1875, 7,095 lbs.; in 1878, 17,719 lbs.; increase, 10,624 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 534; in 1878, 930; increase, 396. Mules and asses, in 1877, 155; in 1878, 311; increase, 156. Milch cows, in 1877, 493; in 1878, 885; increase, 392. Other cattle, in 1877, 863; in 1878, 1,533; increase, 670. Sheep, in 1877, 5,208; in 1878, 6,393; increase, 1,185. Swine, in 1877, 419; in 1878, 1,312; increase, 893.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - None reported.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 18,686 pounds.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $4,984.74.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 22. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 23; pear, 5; peach, 340; plum, 102; cherry, 3. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 8,573; pear, 330; peach, 33,682; plum, 1,962; cherry, 1,786.

Herd Law. - The herd law has been in force since the organization of the county, in 1872, and is very popular; there is no sentiment in favor of its repeal. Farmers generally prefer a fence of some kind, regardless of the law, and much attention is being given to that subject. The law encourages grain growing, rather than stock raising, and there is little argument as to its merits, the sentiment being so nearly unanimous.

Fences. - Stone, no report. Rail, no report. Board, 858 rods; cost, $1,287. Wire, 7,632 rods; cost, $6,029.28. Hedge, 12,908 rods; cost, $12,908. Total rods of fence, 21,398; total cost, $20,224.28.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 2.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $23,971.

Manufactures. - Larned township: steam flouring mill, capital, $10,000; plough factory, capital, $500; broom factory, capital, $300; brick manufactory, capital, $500; pottery, capital, $600; artificial stone works, capital, $400. Pawnee township: horse-power feed mill, capital, $150.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $171,045.75; railroad property, $203,204.80; total assessed valuation of all property, $936,815.29; true valuation of all property, $1,561,358.82. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $37,555.32; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, .04+.

Newspaper History. - The Larned Press was established in 1873, by W. C. Tompkins. It is a Republican paper, and is still published.

The Republican was started at Larned in 1876, and was continued about one year.

The Pawnee County Herald, Republican, first issued at Larned; discontinued in November, 1878; material then used in the publication of The Optic.

The Larned Enterprise, Republican, was established April 1, 1878. The name was subsequently changed to the Chronoscope Henry Inman, editor. It is still being published.

The first number of The Optic bears date of November 27, 1878, published at Larned, by H. H. Doyle, with the late Herald material. Independent Democratic in politics.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 38; school population, 1,581; average, salary of teachers, per month, males, $36.80; females, $25.40. School houses built during 1878, 18; frame, 17; brick, 1. Total number of school houses, 32; frame, 30; brick, 2. Value of all school property, $32,103. No ornamentation of school grounds with shade trees.

Churches - Baptist: organizations, 2; membership, 170. Congregational: organizations, 1; membership, 13; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $2,000. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 15; membership, 240; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $5,000. Presbyterian: organizations, 3; membership, 130; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $2,000. Roman Catholic: organizations, 3; membership, 400. Universalist: organizations, 2; membership, 50; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $3,000.

* Pleasant Ridge township has been organized since census was taken.

Transcribed from First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the Years 1877-8 embracing statistical exhibits, with diagrams of the agricultural, industrial, mercantile, and other interests of the state, together with a colored outline map of the state, and sectional maps, in colors, of each organized county, showing their relative size and location, railroads, towns, post offices, school houses, water powers, etc., etc. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Rand, McNally & Co., Printers and Engravers, Chicago. 1878. Transcribed by William Ellis, January 2002.


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