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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Lyon County

1878

Map of Lyon County - 1878

The first settlement in Lyon county was made in 1855, by Curtis Hiatt and family, and J. Fowler and family, on the Cottonwood river, about two miles from where the city of Emporia is now located. - The first church building was erected in 1859, in the city of Emporia, by the Christian denomination, and James H. Lane delivered the first public address in it, standing on a carpenter's work bench. - First district school house was built in 1863, on the southwest corner of Section 17, Town. 19, Range 11, by J. C. Fraker, and was known as "Humphrey's school house"; the first school house was built in Emporia in 1865, and is now known as the Constitution street school house. - The first business established was a small country store, by James H. Pigman, two miles southeast of Emporia, on the Cottonwood river, and on what was known as the Columbia town site. - First marriage in the county: Charles Carver and Sarah Vangundy, January, 1856. - First birth: a child, (initials unknown), of a family by the name of Hennick, 1856. - First post office: at, or near, where Emporia is now located, 1856, John Fowler, postmaster. - The county was originally called Breckenridge, but was changed to Lyon, in honor of General Nathaniel Lyon, killed at the battle of Wilson's Creek. The county seat was first established at Americus, the first court house was built, and the first court held there. The county seat was subsequently removed to Emporia, where it has since remained. The State Normal School is also located at Emporia, a building having been erected by the State at a cost of $50,000.

The county was organized in 1858.

Population in 1860, 3,515; in 1870, 8,014; increase in ten years, 4,499; population in 1875, 9,542; increase in five years, 1,528; population in 1878, 13,634; increase in eighteen years, 10,119. Rural population, 9,217; city or town population, 4,417; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 67.60.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop.
Agnes City 355 Americus 1,423 Centre 558
Elmendaro 1,200 *Emporia City 4,000 Emporia 1,683
Fremont 766 Jackson 1,271 Pike 1,150
Reading 130 Waterloo 767 ----- -----

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 15 per cent.; upland, 85 per cent.; forest (Government survey), 8 per cent.; prairie, 92 per cent. The width of bottoms varies front one-half mile to four miles; general surface of the country, undulating

Timber. - Average width of timber belts, one mile. Varieties: cottonwood, hackberry, oak, walnut, burr oak, hickory, coffee bean, mulberry. No specified areas of cultivated timber are givem, but nearly all the enterprising farmers are planting more or less, for shade and ornamental purposes. Our report shows that a great deal of interest is being displayed in the subject.

Principal Streams. - The Neosho river with its tributaries, Eagle, Allen, Dow, Rock, Badger, Plum, Coal, Dry creeks. Cottonwood river with its tributaries, Jacobs, Phenis, Fowler, and Moon. Elm creek, One Hundred and Forty-two creek, North and South branches of the Verdigris river. There is a good supply of springs, and well water is obtained at it depth of from 20 to 25 feet.

Coal. - Some coal has been discovered in the northeastern and southwestern portions of the county; it crops out of the creek banks, and the thickness is said to be from one to two feet; quality, medium, but we believe none of consequence has been mined. In Jackson, Elmendaro and Centre townships, a small quantity has been taken out for local use.

Building Stone, Etc. - The county has an abundance of blue and white limestone, conveniently distributed. Some pottery and fire clay reported, but has not been fully developed or tested.

Railroad Connections. - The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad traverses the centre of the county in a direction a little south of west. Principal stations: Emporia and Plymouth. The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad traverses the county in a southeasterly direction, entering near the northwest and passing out near the southeast corner. Principal stations: Americus, Emporia and Hartford.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 549,120; taxable acres, 458,011; under cultivation, 99,617.63; cultivated to taxable acres, 21.75 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 15,168.13.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $15,398.10; poultry and eggs, $7,121.34.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1st, 1878, 447,916 bushels, or an average of 164 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Number of cheese factories, 3; capital invested, $16,050. Cheese manufactured in 1875, 47,020 lbs.; in 1878, 86,465 lbs.; increase, 39,445 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 165,326 lbs.; in 1878, 271,370 lbs.; increase, 106,044 lbs.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat 7,441.00 5,526.00 8,169.00 7,482.00 7,860.00 2,853.00 8,071.00
Rye 333.00 341.00 471.00 993.00 1,900.00 1,326.00 2,225.00
Spring Wheat 2,552.00 4,962.00 4,664.00 1,429.00 2,996.00 1,898.00 2,974.00
Corn 18,414.00 19,892.00 21,007.00 27,358.00 27,606.00 38,452.00 40,084.00
Barley 43.00 61.00 10.00 49.00 143.00 315.00 300.00
Oats 8,048.00 5,251.00 6,016.00 8,755.00 8,093.00 6,579.00 8,323.00
Buckwheat 124.00 189.00 7.00 17.00 72.25 44.00 119.00
Irish Potatoes 510.00 967.00 682.00 752.50 807.04 748.00 1,157.00
Sweet Potatoes 17.00 18.00 71.00 71.74 64.49 44.00 128.00
Sorghum 121.00 143.00 123.00 239.00 152.25 226.00 388.63
Castor Beans 25.00 49.00 70.00 63.50 9.50 33.00 3.00
Cotton 3.75 0.76 0.75 0.87 2.07 ----- -----
Flax ----- ----- 61.00 763.00 56.56 39.00 2.00
Hemp ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- 10.00
Tobacco 1.75 0.33 3.00 4.12 10.24 5.50 29.00
Broom Corn ----- ----- 73.00 45.00 32.67 14.00 274.00
Millet and Hungarian 767.00 609.00 848.00 1,719.00 2,837.25 4,273.00 2,972.00
Timothy Meadow 120.00 120.00 232.00 137.00 189.00 303.00 316.50
Clover Meadow 0.72 144.00 146.00 156.00 555.75 38.00 74.50
Prairie Meadow 20,121.00 8,803.00 13,263.00 15,937.00 16,518.00 19,712.00 23,014.00
Timothy Pasture 17.00 12.00 4.00 ----- 30.00 19.00 6.00
Clover Pasture 50.00 4.00 2.00 3.00 23.50 3.00 137.00
Blue-Grass Pasture 146.00 83.00 15.00 179.50 37.00 98.00 187.00
Prairie Pasture 4,558.00 4,508.00 7,106.00 8,965.00 3,224.00 7,427.00 8,823.00








Total 63,413.22 51,683.09 63,043.75 75,119.23 73,219.57 84,449.50 99,617.63

Increase in six years, 57+ per cent.
Average increase per annum, 9.50 per cent.

RANK of Lyon County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.








Wheat 8 19 24 31 37 50 46
Corn 27 27 34 27 27 31 28








Total Acreage in all Crops 20 27 28 31 33 34 32

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

CROPS. ACRES IN
1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
VALUE OF
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.







Winter Wheat - bu. 8,071.00 5,218.00 in. 145,278.00 131,013.00 in. $87,166.80 $72,901.80 in.
Rye - bu. 2,225.00 899.00 in. 33,375.00 1,551.00 in. 10,012.50 1,125.90 de.
Spring Wheat - bu. 2,974.00 1,076.00 in. 32,714.00 6,142.00 in. 14,394.16 6,863.44 de.
Corn - bu. 40,084.00 1,632.00 in. 1,683,528.00 46,812.00 de. 303,035.04 8,426.16 de.
Barley - bu. 300.00 15.00 de. 7,200.00 4,140.00 de. 2,520.00 1,335.60 de.
Oats - bu. 8,323.00 1,744.00 in. 399,504.00 70,554.00 in. 63,920.64 14,578.14 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 119.00 75.00 in. 2,380.00 1,588.00 in. 1,904.00 1,270.40 in.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 1,157.00 409.00 in. 115,700.00 70,820.00 in. 57,850.00 21,946.00 in.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 128.00 84.00 in. 19,200.00 14,800.00 in. 19,200.00 14,800.00 in.
Sorghum - gall. 388.63 162.63 in. 44,692.45 18,702.45 in. 22,346.23 9,351.23 in.
Castor Beans - bu. 3.00 30.00 de. 30.00 366.00 de. 37.50 358.50 de.
Cotton - lbs. ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Flax - bu. 2.00 37.00 de. 20.00 331.00 de. 20.00 348.55 de.
Hemp - lbs. 10.00 10.00 in. 9,200.00 9,200.00 in. 552.00 552.00 in.
Tobacco - lbs. 29.00 23.50 in. 21,460.00 17,390.00 in. 2,146.00 1,739.00 in.
Broom Corn - lbs. 274.00 260.00 in. 219,200.00 208,000.00 in. 8,220.00 7,800.00 in.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 2,972.00 1,301.00 de. 8,916.00 1,766.50 de. 35,664.00 7,066.00 de.
Timothy Meadow - tons 316.50 13.50 in. 538.05 22.95 in. 2,690.25 114.75 in.
Clover Meadow - tons 74.50 36.50 in. 149.00 73.00 in. 745.00 365.00 in.
Prairie Meadow - tons 23,014.00 3,302.00 in. 32,220.00 4,623.20 in. 120,825.00 17,337.00 in.
Timothy Pasture acres 6.00 13.00 de. ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture - acres 137.00 134.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres 187.00 89.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Prairie Pasture - acres 8,823.00 1,396.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----







Total 99,617.63 15,168.13 in. ----- ----- $753,249.12 $137,231.17 in.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 5,592; in 1878, 6,377; increase, 785. Mules and asses, in 1877, 352; in 1878, 423; increase, 71. Milch cows, in 1877, 7,934; in 1878, 8,490; increase, 556. Other cattle, in 1877, 14,741; in 1878, 17,093; increase, 2,352. Sheep, in 1877, 4,697; in 1878, 7,806; increase, 3,109. Swine, in 1877, 7,740; in 1878, 19,558; increase, 11,818.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 70; value of sheep killed by dogs, $210.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 21,914.25 lbs.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $268,146.74.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 76.75. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 33,833; pear, 3,090; peach, 129,637; plum, 2,142; cherry, 13,311. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 95,800; pear, 5,888; peach, 79,104; plum, 3,527; cherry, 12,248.

Herd Law. - The herd law is not in force in the county, and public sentiment is reported to be practically unanimous against it. The principal objection, as stated by our correspondent, is, that "no fences to amount to anything are built where the herd law exists."

Fences. - Stone, 9,812 rods; cost, $17,171. Rail, 120,650 rods; cost, $162,877.50; Board, 90,909 rods; cost, $99,999.97. Wire, 77,184 rods; cost, $55,572.48. Hedge, 201,143 rods; cost, $130,742.95. Total rods of fence, 499,698; total cost, $466,363.90.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 663; pounds of honey, 5,528; wax, 78.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $52,653.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $750,417; railroad property, $353,523.54; total assessed valuation of all property, $3,849,927.48; true valuation of all property, $6,416,545.80. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $423,000; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, 11-.

Newspaper History. - The Kansas News, a weekly Republican paper, was first issued at Emporia, June 6, 1857. P. B. Plumb was the editor and proprietor. R. J. Hinton was corresponding editor, and William A. Phillips, Lawrence correspondent. July 31, 1858, Jacob Stotler was associated in the proprietorship, and on January 29, 1859, the name was charged to the Emporia News. August 13, 1859, P. B. Plumb and Dudley Randall became joint proprietors, and since October 1, 1859, the paper has been successively published by D. S. Gilmore, J. H. Hunt and others. The present editors and proprietors are Stotler & Graham. A daily edition was issued for a few months in 1870. The daily edition was revived November 1, 1878.

The Americus Sentinel, an Independent paper, was established August 20, 1859, by T. C. Hill. It was subsequently transferred to S. L. Kenyon, and the publication was suspended within one year.

The Emporia Real Estate Register, a monthly publication, was established March 1, 1869, by E. P. Bancroft, and is still published by him.

The Educational Journal, monthly, the organ of the State Teachers' Association, was published at Emporia for three years, and edited by Professors Kellogg, Norton and others connected with the State Normal School.

The Emporia Ledger, Democratic, was established in June, 1871, by a stock company, John Maley, editor. In June, 1872, it was sold to J. H. and E. L. Hunt. March 20, 1873, it was sold to H. W. McCune, and the politics changed to Republican. In the fall of 1878, Mr. McCune sold the Ledger to W. F. Chalfant, who still continues the publication.

The Hartford Enterprise, Republican, was started by Clark & McCray, September 27, 1877.

The Emporia Sun, Democratic, was established by J. M. Davis, editor and proprietor, April 10, 1878.

The Real Estate Advertiser, by Bachellor & Frederick, was published monthly during 1868 and 1869.

The Emporia Hatchet, by Davis & Wheetin, started January 1, 1878.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 85; school population, 4,508; average salary of teachers, per month, males, $35.06; females, $28.85. School houses built during 1878, 5; frame, 4; stone, 1. Total number of school houses, 87; log, 1; frame, 60; brick, 6; stone, 20. Value of all school property, $87,042. No report on ornamentation of school grounds.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 4; membership, 175; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $2,500. Congregational: organizations, 4; membership, 212; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $6,000. Episcopal: organizations, 1; membership, 29; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $4,000. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 14; membership, 622; church edifices, 3; value of church property, $12,000. Presbyterian: organizations, 6; membership, 320; church edifices, 3; value of church property, $15,000. Roman Catholic: organizations, 7; membership, 800; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $3,000. United Presbyterian: organizations, 3; membership, 130; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $6,000.

* Estimated

Transcribed from First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the Years 1877-8 embracing statistical exhibits, with diagrams of the agricultural, industrial, mercantile, and other interests of the state, together with a colored outline map of the state, and sectional maps, in colors, of each organizaed county, showing their relative size and location, railroads, towns, post offices, school houses, water powers, etc., etc. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Rand, McNally & Co., Printers and Engravers, Chicago. 1878. Transcribed October, 2001.


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