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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Greenwood County


Map of Greenwood County - 1878

First settlements: Eureka township, July and August, 1857, by Josiah Kenneman, Edwin Tucker, M. L. Ashmore, and others; Salt Springs township, 1858, Richard Graves; Salem township, by Charles Christinson and Neils Ladd, Norwegians, date not given: Pleasant Grove township, 1856, Terrill Reeves; Spring Creek township, 1859, A. J. R. Williams, Jones and others; Twin Groves township, 1865, John Gage, T. Gage, and J. Sharp; Janesville township, 1857, Niram Norton, David Marston and Peter Nesbit; Fall River township, 1858, W. C. Waybright. - First church buildings: Eureka township, Methodist, Congregational and Christian, built at Eureka in the summer of 1870; there are no church edifices in the other townships, but the school houses are generally used for religious worship. - First school houses: Eureka. township, on what is now the town site of Eureka, in 1857, by M. L. Ashmore, L. Prather, David Tucker and Edwin Tucker; Salt Springs township, 1871, district No. 45; Salem township, 1868, district No. 10; Pleasant Grove township, 1861, by an unorganized district school, taught by A. P. Loveland; Twin Groves township, 1873, district No. 41; Janesville township, 1857, William Sterling and others; there are five organized school districts in the township, each having a school building; Fall River township, by district No. 25, no date. - First marriages: Eureka township, John Colster and Miss Van Schoyk, summer of 1860; Janesville township, Stirling Lewis, lady's name not given, 1859. - First births: Otho Sumner, no date; Pleasant Grove township, Emeline Reeves. - First business established: James Kenner, 1865; Fall River township, saw mill, by Coy & Shelton. - First post offices: Eureka township, Eureka, 1858, Edwin Tucker, postmaster; Salt Springs township, Salt Springs, 1868; Salem township, Lapland, 1871, 0. H. Hover, postmaster; Pleasant Grove township, Pleasant Grove, Albert Reeves, postmaster; Spring Creek townsship,[sic] Collins, fall of 1870, G. W. Clemmens, postmaster; Twin Groves township, Valley, I. T. Bullock, postmaster; Janesville township, Janesville, 1861 or 1862, Thomas Hill, postmaster; Fall River township, Belle Grove, J. H. Roe, postmaster, name of office since changed to Climax. - The M. E. Church organized a class at Eureka in 1858; the first Sabbath School was organized as a Union School, under the charge of Edwin Tucker, in 1857, and in December of the following year, the same gentleman began a day school. During the war, the population largely decreased, and, with general business, began to increase upon the return of peace. Fort Montgomery, named in honor of Col. James Montgomery, of border partisan fame, was a garrison on what is now the site of Eureka, during a portion of the war, and was commanded by Capt. Leander Bemis.

Greenwood county was organized in 1872.

Population in 1860, 1,077; in 1870, 3,484; increase in ten years, 2,407; population In 1875, 6,483; increase in five years, 2,999; population !it 1878, 7,648; increase in eighteen years, 6,471. Rural population, 6,501; city or town population, 1,147; per cent, of rural to city or town population, 85.

* POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
[NOTE: * Shell Rock township has been organized since census was taken.]

Eureka City8Eureka640Fall River893
Otter Creek683Pleasant Grove819Salem394
Spring Creek1,182Salt Springs1,083Twin-Groves543

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 20 per cent.; upland, 80 per cent.; forest (Government survey), 5 per cent.; prairie, 95 per cent. Average width of bottoms, one mile; general suface of the country undulating, with bluff's usually skirting one side of the streams.

Timber. - Average width of timber belts, fifty rods. Varieties: oak, walnut, hackberry, hickory, elm, cottonwood, sycamore, mulberry and ash. Considerable attention has been given to the cultivation of timber, but there are no specific estimates as to areas planted. Cottonwood, soft maple and box elder are the principal varieties.

Principal Streams. - Verdigris and Fall rivers; Willow, Slate, Homer and Bachelor creeks flow into the Verdigris. Otter, Spring, Salt and Honey creeks flow into Fall river; general course of the streams, southeasterly. The county is well supplied with springs; well water obtained at a depth of from 12 to 35 feet.

Coal. - Thin veins have been discovered in some portions of the county at a depth of from four to eight feet below the surface. Quality medium; used for blacksmithing, fuel for steam mills, and to a limited extent for domestic purposes.

Building Stone, etc. - Sand and limestone is abundant in all parts of the county. There is a salt spring, in Salt Spring township, from which a good quality of salt was made years since. Pottery clay, mineral paint and fire clay have also been found, but not developed to any considerable extent.

Railroad Connections. - No railroads in the county.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 739,200; taxable acres, 550,645; under cultivation, 68,244.86; cultivated to taxable acres, 12.39 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 7,298.49.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $1,826.10; poultry and eggs, $2,502.10.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1st, 1878, 166,247 bushels, or an average of 96 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Number of cheese factories, 1; capital invested, $1,800; manufactured in 1875, 2,200 lbs.; in 1878, 10,171 lbs.; increase, 7,971 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 165,032 lbs.; in 1878, 199,836 lbs.; increase, 34,804 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 4,080; in 1878, 4,118; increase, 38. Mules and asses, in 1877, 376; in 1878, 458; increase, 82. Milch cows, in 1877, 5,360; in 1878, 5,521; increase, 161. Other cattle, in 1877, 20,329; in 1878, 19,617; decrease, 712. Sheep, in 1877, 4,897; in 1878, 4,275; decrease, 622. Swine, in 1877, 11,887; in 1878, 16,886; increase, 4,999,

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 48; value of sheep killed by dogs, $144.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 14,161 lbs.

Value of AnimaIs Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $199,310.15.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS.1872.1873.1874.1875.1876.1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat3,719.003,719.005,004.006,182.509,129.005,385.007,897.00
Rye86.00216.00248.00483.501,089 00291.00623.00
Spring Wheat369.00745.00806.0058.00153 0081.00205.00
Barley9.0011.005.00 5.0034.00169.00253.00
Oats4,439.003,997,003,399.003,965,255,872.004,145 005,741 00
Buckwheat66.0079.0030.0044 2533.0045.0045.00
Irish Potatoes357.00481.00657.00563.03670.82601.001,053.OD
Sweet Potatoes14.00901.0019.0028.9555.0433.0026.00
Castor Beans-----2.2547.00125.5051.00411.0090.50
Broom Corn----------14.0033.8716.5069.0026.12
Millet and Hungarian187.00330.00717.001,154.001,847.003,063.001,999.00
Timothy Meadow9.0096.5092,0029.50125.0098.00159.50
Clover Meadow2.0034.5054.0040.0042.5076.0073.00
Prairie Meadow14,288.003,975.007,274.0010,958.0011,766.009,943.009,578.00
Timothy Pasture7.0025.005.0016.0067.0031.00188.00
Clover Pasture3.001.00-----18.0010.007.007.00
Blue-Grass Pasture-----13.0041.0057.00119.5072.00127.25
Prairie Pasture3,287.007,327.003,970.008.622,504,628.006,887.009,113.00

Total30,618.05 1,38,064.7543,716.0057,855.3455,272.8560,946.3768,244.86

Increase in six years, 72+ per cent.
Average increase per annum, 12+ per cent.

RANK of Greenwood County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage
for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS.1872.1873.1874.1875.1876.1877. 1878.
Total Acreage in all Crops32343840434446

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with
the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

FROM 1877.
FROM 1877.
IN 1878.
FROM 1877.
Winter Wheat - bu.7,897.002,512.00 in.132,146.0078,296.00 in.$79,287.60$30,822.60 in.
Rye - bu.623.00332.00 in.15,575. 009,755.00 in.4,672.502,751.90 in.
Spring Wheat - bu.205.00124.00 in.2,050. 001078.00 in.820.0042.40 in.
Corn - bu.30,540.001,458.00 in.916,200.00247,080.00 de.146,592.0062,798.40 de.
Barley - bu.253,0084.00 in.6,325.002,945.00 in.2,213.751,233.55 in.
Oats - bu.5,741.001596.00 in.218,158.0056,503.00 in.47,994.7623,746.51 in.
Buckwheat - bu.45.00-----1,080.00585.00 in.864.00468.00 in.
Irish Potatoes - bu.1,053.00452.00 in.52.650.001,440.00 de.21,060.008,689.50 de.
Sweet Potatoes - bu.26.007.00 de.21860.00440.00 de.2.145.001,155.00 de.
Sorghum - gall.271.1219.88 de.31,178.802,286.20 de.1,589,401,143.10 de.
Castor Beans - bu.90.50320.50 de.814.504.117.50 de. 1,018.133,913.87 de.
Cotton - lbs.15.2512.38 in.2,592.502,104.60 in.233.33184.54 in.
Flax - bu.205.0068.00 in.2,255.00611.00 in.2,255.00528.80 in.
Hemp - lbs.-----13.50 de.-----12.420.00 de.-----745.20 de.
Tobacco - lbs.9.123.88 de,6,748.802871.20 de.674.88287.12 de.
Broom Corn - lbs.26.1242.88 de.20,896 0034,304.00 de.783.601,286.40 de.
Millet and Hungarian - tons1,999,001,064.00 de.5,997.001,660.50 de.22.788.606,309.90 de.
Timothy Meadow - tons159.5061.50 in.239.2592.25 in.1,136.44438.19 in.
Clover Meadow - tons73.003.00 de.124.105.10 de.589.4724.23 de.
Prairie Meadow - tons9,578.00365.00 de.17,240.00657.40 de.47,410.001,607.85 de.
Timothy Pasture - acres188.00157.00 in.--------------------
Clover Pasture - acres7.00-------------------------
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres127.2555.25 in.--------------------
Prairie Pasture - acres9,113 002,226.00 in.--------------------

Total -68,244.857,298.49----------$398,128.46$27,944.08 de.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 405.12. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 12,766; pear, 407; peach, 102,208; plum, 916; cherry, 6,238. Number. of trees not in bearing: apple, 52,766; pear, 1,520; peach, 72,175; plum, 2,852; cherry, 11,009.

Herd Law. - The herd law is not in force in the county, except the night law in some townships. There is some diversity of sentiment, but a very decided majority are opposed to the law. In behalf of such a law, it is urged that it would promote the settlement of the uplands, and enable the settler to start a hedge, and raise crops while it is maturing. In opposition, it is claimed that it would be detrimental to stock raising, a large proportion of the lands being specially adapted to grazing purposes.

Fences. - Stone, 36,805 rods; cost, $55,207.50. Rail, 159,171 rods; cost, $222,839.40. Board, 40,953 rods; cost, $58,562.79. Wire, 27,755 rods I cost, $20,261.15. Hedge, 142,051 rods; cost, $85,230.60. Total rods of fence, 406,735; total cost, $442,101.44.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 215; pounds of honey, 1,037; wax, 46.50.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $51,256.

Manufactures. - Eureka, City: Steam saw mill, capital, $1,600; steam grist mill, capital, $18,000. Lane township: steam saw mill, capital, $500. Fall River township: cheese factory, capital, $1,800; water power grist mills, 2, capital invested, $12,500. Salt Springs township: steam saw mill, capital, $1,200; water power grist mill, capital, $1,500. Twin Groves township: broom factory; sorghum mill, capital, $100.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $391,042; total assessed valuation of all property, $2,130,311.04; true valuation of all property,. $3,550,518.40. total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $79,241; per cent. of' indebtedness to assessed valuation, .04-.

Newspaper History. - The first number of the Eureka Herald was issued July 4th, 1868, by S. G. Mead, who continued the publication of the paper until January, 1877, when he sold it toll. C. Rlzer and G. F. Dunham, the present editors and publishers, The Herald is Republican in politics,

The Censorial was established in 1875, by W. E. Doud, editor and proprietor, and is still continued under the same management. It is Democratic in politics.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 77; school population, 3,050; average salary of teachers per month, males, $34.62; females, $30.92. School houses built during 1878, 8; frame, 5; stone, 3. Total number of school houses, 73; frame, 53: brick 1; stone, 19. Value of all school property, $60,079. The school grounds are not ornamented with shade trees.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 5; membership, 221. Congregational: organizations, 3; membership, 142; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $2,000. Episcopal: organizations, 1 ; membership, 20; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $600. Lutheran: organizations, 1; membership, 50. Methodist Episco. pal: organizations, 20; membership, 450; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $5,000. Presbyterian: organizations, 3; membership, 70; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $4,000. Roman Catholic: organizations, 4; membership,, 1,000; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $800.

Transcribed from First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the Years 1877-8 embracing statistical exhibits, with diagrams of the agricultural, industrial, mercantile, and other interests of the state, together with a colored outline map of the state, and sectional maps, in colors, of each organizaed county, showing their relative size and location, railroads, towns, post offices, school houses, water powers, etc., etc. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Rand, McNally & Co., Printers and Engravers, Chicago. 1878.

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