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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Douglas County

1878

Map of Douglas County - 1878

No place in the broad Union has had so conspicuous a history in the progress of slavery emancipation and the events of the war as Lawrence, the county seat of Douglas county. In early days it was by general consent called the "City of Freedom," and was really, during the slavery agitation of 1854-5-6, the only place in the territory where it was safe to speak against the institution of slavery. Its thrilling history of suffering, preceding and during the war, has given it the significant appellation of the "Historic City."

The town was originally settled by a colony from New England, under the auspices of the New England Emigrant Aid Society, with a few from other States who fell in by the way. This party left Massachusetts July 17, 1854, and arrived and camped on the site of the present State University, coming with ox teams purchased in Missouri, about noon on Tuesday, August 1, 1834. In two weeks after, a second party, numbering some sixty or seventy, under the supervision of Dr. Charles Robinson and S. C. Pomeroy, arrived. These were soon followed by a third and fourth party, which materially augmented the numbers of the colony. The infant city was known by the names of Wakarusa and New Boston - the Missourians calling it Yankee town.

View of Lawrence
VIEW OF LAWRENCE.
(From Harper's Special Geography of Kansas)

The colony soon located, principally in the valley on the river bank near the north end of Massachusetts street. Charles H. Banscomb and James Blood had previously explored the country, and had recommended this location. This settlement was made against the threats of Pro-Slavery men in all directions that these anti-slavery men should be driven from the country. The first rallying of forces from Lawrence was on the night of September 30, 1854, for the protection of Rev. Thomas J. Ferril, a Free-State Methodist preacher from Missouri, but his assailants, who had surrounded his house, threatened violence and the destruction of property, retreated on the appearance of a body of armed Free-State men without injury to either party. On the 1st of October the tent of a Free-State man was torn down - the instrument selected being a woman. The Pro-Slavery men rallied to prevent its re-erection, about twenty armed Free-State men rallying and re-erecting the tent without violence on either side; but a renewal of the attack was threatened the next day, when a considerable band of Pro-s1avery men appeared, but, seeing their opponents ready, retreated with renewed threats of vengeance.

The town was named Lawrence October 1, 1854, in honor of Amos A. Lawrence, of Boston, who afterwards donated $10,000 for educational purposes, which was subsequently appropriated to the University of Kansas, which is located at Lawrence.

Early in October, 1854, Andrew H. Reeder, the first governor of Kansas, arrived, had a reception, a festival, and it speech of welcome by Hon. S. C. Pomeroy, and made a conciliatory speech, evading the slavery question, and recommending the cultivation of harmony and order. The first winter was one of great hardship, the people mostly living in sod houses and shanties made of clap-boards. At the first election - an election for delegates to Congress only - November 3, 1854, there was great excitement, and a man by the name of Davis attacked a pro-slavery man, named Kibbee with a bowie-knife, with execrations and oaths, threatening to "cut his abolition heart out," when Kibbee shot Davis. This was the first homicide in Kansas, and occurred about two miles south of Lawrence, Kibbee was arrested, held in prison at Fort Leavenworth for a short time, bailed out, but never tried.

On the 10th of January, 1855, a school was established, Edward Fitch, teacher, supported by voluntary contributions, and free to all. This was the first free school in Kansas, and was the commencement of free schools. The winter of 1854-5 was passed with no dangerous violence, but on the 30th of March, 1855, about 700 armed men from Missouri voted at the election for members of the Legislature; but, owing to the overwhelming numbers of the pro-slavery men, none of them were challenged, and the enemy, who camped on the town site, departed for Missouri the next morning. Silas Bond was shot at and driven from the polls because he was regarded as an obnoxious Free-State man.

The first Fourth of July celebration in Lawrence was largely attended, and was defiantly Anti-Slavery, Gov. Charles Robinson delivering the address and John Speer presenting the toasts. In the summer, Col. James H. Lane and others made a futile effort to organize the National Democratic party, but the meeting resulted in a call of the Free-State citizens for a convention at Lawrence early in August, and that meeting provided for the historic Big Springs Convention, held September 5, 1855.

In June, 1855, a meeting was held in Lawrence, John Speer presiding, at which resolutions were adopted to resist any laws which might be passed by the Legislature, and declaring that that body was elected by armed usurpers from Missouri. This was really the commencement of the war in Kansas. Charles W. Dow, a peaceable, unoffending Free-State man, was murdered near Baldwin City, November 21, 1855, by Franklin N. Coleman, and the rescue of Jacob Branson by a hand of Free-State men from Sheriff Jones, with a posse of about an equal number, followed. This brought on what has become historic as the Wakarusa war. Twelve hundred Pro-Slavery men, principally from Missouri, besieged Lawrence, and about six hundred Free-State men, under the command of Gov. Charles Robinson as Commander-in-Chief, and James H. Lane as Brigadier-General, defended the place. Five forts of earthwork or rifle pits, were erected, and a vigorous defense prepared for. Finally a kind of treaty of peace was patched up, and the Pro-Slavery men returned to Missouri. During the seige Thomas W. Barber, a peaceable Free-State man, was murdered. A State Convention to nominate a candidate for Governor under the Topeka Constitution, was held in Lawrence on the 22d of December, 1855, at which Charles Robinson received the nomination.

The first Territorial Legislature passed a law inflicting the penalty of death for enticing away or in any manner aiding a fugitive slave, and imprisonment of not less than two years for writing, printing or publishing "any denial of the right of persons to hold slaves in this Territory," and fixing the 15th day of September, 1855, for the taking effect of the law. On that day there was published in the Kansas Tribune, edited by John Speer, an article occupying a full page of that paper, and printed in large job type, of which the following is a fac-simile, reduced by photo engraving, showing the exact appearance of the article, as illustrating the spirit of the times. The spots in the plate, which are taken imperfectly, were caused by sparks from the burning of the editor's dwelling house.

fac-simile of paper

The spring of 1856 opened with great promise, and everything seemed fair for the young settlement. Many new emigrants were daily arriving to swell the number of settlers. S. N. Wood, who had been engaged in the rescue of Jacob Branson, and had been East since that affair, returned to Lawrence, hold and defiant, bringing with him a number of Free-State emigrants of the same temper. He was soon after arrested by S. J. Jones, acting as sheriff, accompanied by a posse; but Wood refused to acknowledge the authority, and was rescued by some of his friends. Soon after Jones appeared in the town with a company of United States dragoons, and arrested a dozen prominent Free-State men. That night, while sitting in his tent, Jones was shot and dangerously wounded. The act was denounced by a public meeting of Free-State men, but a perfect reign of terror followed, and Lawrence was again threatened with destruction. On the 21st of May, Jones, partly recovered from his wound, entered the town with a body of United States troops, and a large number of Pro-Slavery militia, principally from Missouri, and destroyed the Free-State and Herald of Freedom printing offices, the Free State hotel, Gov. Robinson's dwelling on Mount Oread, and pillaged and robbed stores and private houses. About the same time, Messrs. Hoyt, Stewart and Jones, Free-State men, were murdered, and Charles Robinson, John Brown, Jr., G. W. Smith, H. H. Williams, G. W. Deitzler, G. W. Brown, and Gains Jenkins, were imprisoned in tents near Lecompton, guarded by United States soldiers, having been arrested on a charge of treason. About the last of September 2,700 Pro-Slavery men appeared in sight of Lawrence, and the town was temporarily defended by Free-State men, under the command of Maj. J. B. Abbott, until Gov. Geary, who had just arrived in the territory, interposed for their protection with United States troops. A Pro-Slavery fort at Hickory Point, thirty miles north of Lawrence, was captured by a body of Free-State men, two of the enemy killed, and the night following one hundred and one of the Free-State men were arrested on charges of murder and treason, by United States troops, and confined in prison at Lecompton.

Gov. Geary, for his attempts to protect Lawrence and the Free-State men, had his life threatened, and was actually compelled to arm these prisoners for his own defense, and finally left the territory. The Free-State men from this time grew in strength, and in 1857 a Convention was held at Lawrence which determined to participate in the election under the "bogus laws." Frauds were perpetrated at Oxford, on the State line, by which it was hoped to cheat the district, of which Lawrence was a part, out of the election of three members of the Territorial Council, and seven members of the House.

A party went from Lawrence to hang the judges of election at that place, and a renewal of scenes of violence became imminent. The returns of the Oxford election were rejected by the returning board, composed of Gov. Walker and Secretary Stanton, and an extra session of the Legislature called to devise measures for the taking of a fair vote on the Lecompton Constitution. This constitution was formed at Lecompton, and was ingeniously framed for the purpose of establishing slavery in the proposed State of Kansas, without submitting that question to a vote of the people, and was a cause of the renewal of the slavery excitement. Lecompton was then the headquarters of the Pro-Slavery men, and with every obtainable vehicle, about eight hundred armed men, with Gen. James H. Lane at their head, escorted the triumphant Free-State Legislature from Lawrence to Lecompton. Thenceforward the Free-State men were in power in the Territory, and the Territorial Legislatures of 1858, '59 and '60 adjourned from Lecompton and held their sessions in Lawrence.

The First and Second Kansas Regiments, and other troops for the war, were organized at Lawrence. The city grew rapidly during the first years of that war.

August, 21, 1863, the most terrible massacre of the war occurred at Lawrence. At the dawn of day, Wm. C. Quantrill, a notorious bushwhacker and guerrilla, dashed into the town, meeting many of the unarmed citizens in their night clothes. The town was pillaged and burned, 180 citizens were murdered, leaving 80 widows and 250 orphans, and property amounting to about $2,000,000 destroyed. Two solid blocks of buildings on Massachusetts street, and nearly every good dwelling in the city, were burned, This was a terrible blow to the city's prosperity, but the next year was a prosperous one, and the city was rebuilt with unexampled activity.

Population, in 1860, 8,637; in 1870, 20,592; increase in ten years, 11,955; population in 1875, 18,505; decrease in five years, 2,087; population in 1878, 18,931; increase in eighteen years, 10,294. Rural population, 9,078; city or town population, 9,853, per cent. of rural to city or town population, 47.90.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.

TOWNSHIPS AND
CITIES.
Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND
CITIES.
Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND
CITIES.
Pop.
Clinton862Eudora1,782Grant519
Kanwaka870Lawrence City7,461Lecompton935
Marion1,045Palmyra2200Wakarusa2,083
Willow Springs1,174



Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 20 per cent.; upland, 80 per cent.; forest (Government survey) 6 per cent.; prairie, 94 per cent. Average width of bottoms, one mile; general surface of the country undulating.

Timber. - The width of timber belts ranges from a few rods to one mile. Varieties: walnut, ash, hackberry, oak, elm, cottonwood, etc

Principal Streams. - The Kansas river and the Wakarusa. The former runs a little south of east, forming all but it small portion of the northern boundary; the latter flows through the central portion, a little north of east. Also numerous small streams. The county is well supplied with springs, good well water obtained at a depth of 25 feet.

Coal. - Coal is supposed to underlie the whole county. Thickness from 12 to 20 inches, and at a depth of from 10 feet below the surface downward; quality poor, and not much developed as yet.

Building Stone, etc. - Plenty of building stone of fine quality in various localities. Fire and pottery clay reported on Mount Oread, near Lawrence.

Railroad Connections. - The Kansas Pacific Railway crosses the northern corner of the county; principal station, Lawrence. The Leavenworth, Lawrence Lawrence & Galveston Railway runs nearly through the centre of the county from north to south; principal stations, Lawrence, Baldwin City, Prairie City. The St. Louis, Lawrence & Denver (Pleasant Hill) Railroad follows the Kansas river to De Soto, Johnson county, thence southeast to Olathe and Pleasant Hill, Mo. The Lawrence & Southwestern Railroad connects Lawrence with the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad at Carbondale, in Osage county. The Kansas Midland Railroad runs on the south bank of the Kansas river from Topeka to Kansas City; principal stations, Lawrence, Lecompton and Eudora.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 300,160; taxable acres, 291,087; under cultivation, 137,003.75; cultivated to taxable acres, 47.07 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 320.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $13,356; poultry and eggs, $11,336.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1st, 1878, 452,169 bushels, or an average of 119 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Cheese manufactured in 1875, 9,465 lbs.; in 1878, 5,587 lbs.; decrease, 3,878 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 304,542 lbs.; in 1878, 385,702 lbs.; increase, 81,160 lbs.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878. inclusive.

CROPS.
1872.1873.1874.1875.1876.1877.1878.
Winter Wheat4,656.004,654.008,460.002,902.008,864 0010,730.0018,518.00
Rye158.00755.001,032.00575.002,811.002,241.001,476 00
Spring Wheat159.00548.00545.0010.00110.0049.00292.00
Corn43,338.0049,030.0036,231.0070,099.0057,876.0061,557.0048,995.00
Barley57.00250.00269 0016.0078.00136.0089.00
Oats10,117.009,853.0010,406.004,350.009,319.006,434.008,562,00
Buckwheat412.00485.00123.00460.75304.00129.00119.00
Irish Potatoes1,438.001,738.001,372.001,520.501,668.581,336.001,419.00
Sweet Potatoes59.00105.00160.00230.00156.50101.0066.50
Sorghum122.00187.00361.00745.00590.38414.00229.00
Castor Beans4.0028.00106.00635.50457.00314.00162.00
Cotton.254.253.003.0020.50----------
Flax7.00358.00421.00641.001,039.50420.00601.50
Hemp143.00314.0097.0081.50143.00334. 00125.00
Tobacco2.0024.254.004.5051.257.7519.00
Broom Corn----------81.00384.00454.50111.00203.25
Millet and Hungarian726.002,117.002,927.005,047.004,359.003,522.003,219.00
Timothy Meadow1,644.001,643.002,324.001,845.001,110.502,385.003,644.00
Clover Meadow1,581.001,581.001,046.00605.00221.50714.00785.50
Prairie Meadow17,767.0017,684.0024,581.0022,983.0031,689.0020,200.0021,602.00
Timothy Pasture293.00293.00440.00374.50114.50340.00292.00
Clover Pasture 294.00294.00374.00139.0020.0064.00196.00
Blue-Grass Pasture642.00642.00495.00333.50502.001,065.00873.00
Prairie Pasture16,293.0014,913.0017,286.0033,939.0027,763.0024,080.0025,516.00








Total99,912.25107,560.50109,144.00147,923.75149.712.71136,683.75137,003.755

Increase in six years, 37+ per cent.
Average increase per annum, 6.16+ per cent.

RANK of Douglas County to the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage, for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS.1872.1873.1874.1875.1876.1877.1878.








Wheat27291452443135
Corn7413571218
Total Acreage in all Crops8772 5817

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the
Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

CROPS. ACRES IN
1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
PRODUCT IN
1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877
VALUE OF
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
Winter Wheat - bu18,518.007,788.00 in.351,842.00147,972.00 in.$232,215.72$28,345.72 in.
Rye - bu.1,476.00765.00 de.35,424.0016,119.00 de.10,627.207,124.85 de.
Spring Wheat - bu.292.00243.00 in.2,920.002,332.00 in.1,606.001,094.44 in.
Corn - bu.48,995.0012,562,00 de.1,714,825.00932,126.00 de.342,965.00292,303,24 de.
Barley - bu.89.0047.00 de.1,780.00260.00 de.623.00193.00 de.
Oats - bu.8,562.002,128.00 in.265:4V.008,062.00 in.45,121.743,944 14 in.
Buckwheat - bu.119.0010.002,380.00832.00 in.1,904.00665.60 in.
Irish Potatoes - bu.1,419.0083.00 in.70,950.0062,650.00 de.28,380.0071,820.00 de.
Sweet Potatoes - bu.66.5034.50 de.5,985.006,135.00 de.4,488 759,085.65 de.
Sorghum - gall.229.00185.00 de.26,335.0021,275.00 de.13,167.5010,637.50 de.
Castor Beans - bu.162.00152.00 de.2,430.002,280.00 de.3,037.501,672.50de.
Cotton - lbs.------------------------------
Flax - bu.601.50181.50 in.8,421.004,221.00 in.8.421.004,011.00 in.
Hemp - lbs.125.00209.00 de.115,000.00192,280.00 de.6,900.0011,536.80 de.
Tobacco - lbs.19.0011.25 in.14,060.008.325,00 in.1,406.00832.50 in.
Broom Corn - lbs.203.2592.25 in.162,600.0073,800.00 in.6,097.502,767.50 in.
Millet and Hungarian - tons3,219.00303.00 de.9,657.0028.50 de.48,285.00142.50 de.
Timothy Meadow - tons3,644.001,259 00 in.6,559.202,266.20 in.39,355.2013,597.20 in.
Clover Meadow - tons785.5071.50 in.1,492.45135.85 in.8,954.70815.10 in.
Prairie Meadow - tons21,602.001,402.00 in.34,563.002,243.00 in.120,970.507,850.50 in.
Timothy Pasture - acres292.0048.00 de.--------------------
Clover Pasture - acres196.00132.00 in.--------------------
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres873.00192.00 de--------------------
Prairie Pasture - acres25,516.001,436.00 in.--------------------







Total - 137,003.75320.00 in.----------$924,526.31$340.880.34 de.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 7,012; in 1878, 6,945; decrease, 67. Mules and asses, in 1877,537; in 1878,657, increase, 120. Milch cows, in 1877 , 7 , 163 ; in 1878, 7,143; decrease, 20. Other cattle, in 1877,10,995; in 1878, 12,750, increase, 1,755. Sheep, in 1877, 2,510; in 1878, 2,477; decrease, 33. Swine, in 1877, 17,583; in 1878, 26,222; increase, 8,639.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 49; value of sheep killed by dogs, $147.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 5,920 lbs.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaugh. ter during the year, $229,452.08.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 284. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 121,972; pear, 4,088; peach, 82,412; plum, 1,654; cherry, 23,944. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 95,424; pear, 4,214; peach, 16,370; plum, 979; cherry, 7,019.

Herd Law. - The herd law is not in force. One correspondent says: "If we do not secure it, it will take all our timber to rebuild fences in the next five years." Another correspondent writes: "It would add ten dollars to the value of every acre of bottom land, and five dollars to every acre of upland in the county." A third report states that it is viewed unfavorably by some few in the county.

Fences. - Stone, 85,210 rods; cost, $127,815. Rail, 178,259 rods; cost, $231,746.70. Board, 70,663 rods; cost, $98,928.20. Wire, 33,079 rods; cost, $23,155.30. Hedge, 855,395 rods; cost, $177,697.50. Total rods of fence, 722,606; total cost, $659,342.70.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, $64; pounds of honey, 9,250 ; wax, 114.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $57,498.

Manufactures. - Baldwin City: steam grist mill, capital, $1,500. Eudora township: steam grist mill, capital, $10,000. City of Lawrence: steam flouring mill, capital, $11,000; water power flouring mill, capital, $25,000; water and steam flouring mill, capital, $12,000; wind power wagon and plow manufactory, capital, $50,000; foundry, capital, $25,000; cabinet works, capital, $6,000; pottery, capital, $1,000; soda water manufactory, capital, $2,000; paint works, capital, $3,000; steam soap factory, capital, $10,000; shirt manufatory, capital, $800; vinegar works, capital, $5,000; gas works, capital, $25,000.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $1,118,402; railroad property, $459,582.76; total assessed valuation of all property, $4,987,379.76; true valuation of all property, $8,312,299.60. Total indebtedness of county, township, city, and school districts, $1,148,695.27; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, 23+.

Newspaper History. - The first number of the Herald of Freedom was dated Wakarusa, Kansas, October 21,1854, but was printed in Pennsylvania. The second number was published at Lawrence, January 6, 1855. May 21, 1856, the office was destroyed by the Border Ruffians, and the publication was suspended. It was re-established in the following November, and continued until 1859, when it finally expired.

John Speer printed one number of the Kansas Pioneer in Ohio, dated October 15, 1854, having visited Kansas the month previously, and prepared his editorials in that territory. Returning to Kansas with his material, he found that a pro-slavery paper called the Pioneer had been established at Kickapoo, near Leavenworth. He therefore changed the name of his paper to the Kansas Tribune, and published the first number at Lawrence, January 5, 1855. S. N. Wood became a partner, and the paper was published until November, 1855, when It was removed to Topeka. In July, of that year, it was published as a daily for one week. At Topeka, Speer associated with him W. W. Ross as a partner. They continued the publication until February, 1857, when Speer sold out to Ross Brothers.

The Kansas Free State was started at Lawrence, by Josiah Miller and R. G. Elliott, in January, 1855. and continued till May 21, 1856, when the office was destroyed by "border ruffians." It was revived by R. G. Elliott, and published at Delaware, Kansas, for a short time.

The Lecompton Union was established in the spring of 1856, by Jones & Faris. The firm was changed, a few months after the establishment of the paper, to Jones & Bennett. When the paper suspended, in 1861, the material of the office was removed to Marysville. During the last year of its existence it was edited by W. P. Montgomery, now editor of the Hays City Sentinel.

The first number of the Lawrence Republican was issued May 28, 1857; Norman Allen, proprietor, T. D. Thacher, editor. In the summer of 1858, T. D. Thacher, S. O. Thacher and S. M. Thacher bought Allen out. In 1859, S. O. Thacher sold his interest to his partners. December 27, 1860, the establishment was sold to John Speer, who took in as partner for three months Verres Nicholas Smith, now of Chappaqua, N. Y., who married Miss Ida, daughter of Horace Greeley. Rev. H. M. Moore succeeded Smith for three months, and Speer continued the paper alone until September 4, 1862, when he sold it back to T. D. Thacher. During the last session of the Territorial Legislature in 1861, the Republican was published as a daily by Speer & Smith. Mr. Thatcher continned to publish the paper, in connection with S. M. Thacher, until the Quantrill massacre, August 21, 1863, when the office, books, accounts, library and everything were totally consumed. February 1, 1868, the Republican was re-established by Mr. Thacher, and continued until March 4, 1869, when it was consolidated with the State Journal and the Ottawa Home Journal in the Republican Daily Journal and the Western Home Journal, weekly.

The Freeman's Champion, was started at Prairie City, by S. S. Prouty, June 25. 1857, being printed under a tent erected by the ladies for that purpose. Eleven numbers were issued, after which the publication was suspended. Three months later, Mr. Prouty, in company with Oliver P. Willett, revived the Champion. After three months, Willett withdrew, and the publication was continued by Prouty until September, 1858, when he discontinued the publication, forty numbers having been issued in fifteen months. The material upon which the Champion was printed was purchased of G. W. Brown, of the Herald of Freedom, by the Prairie City Town Company. The press was the one brought to the Territory in 1834, by Rev. J. Meeker, a Baptist missionary to the Ottawa Indians.

The National Democrat was started at Lecompton, February 23, 1858, by S. W. Driggs. It was published till October, 1860, when the material was removed to Atchison.

The first number of the Congregational Record was published in January, 1859, at Lawrence, R. Cordley, S. Y. Lum and H. M. Simpson, a committee of the Congregational Association, having charge of the publication. Rev. R. Cordley had editorial charge, assisted by Rev. L. Bodwell and Rev. R. D. Parker. It was published quarterly until January, 1862, after which it appeared monthly. It was destroyed in the Quantrill raid, as was the house of the editor, Mr. Cordley. The next number, September and October combined, was printed by T. D. Thacher, at the office of the Journal of Commerce, Kansas City, and contained a full account of the raid, from the pen of Mr. Cordley. From this time the care of the publication chiefly devolved on Mr. Parker, it being printed at Kansas City, until December, 1864, when it was suspended until June, 1865. It was then revived, under the editorial care of Rev. J. D. Liggett and Rev. P. McVicar, and was printed at Leavenworth one year. It was then transferred to Topeka, with Messrs. McVicar and Cordley, editors. On the completion of the eighth volume, May, 1867, its publication was abandoned. The numbers for October and November, 1864, contain a full account of the Price invasion. While published at Lawrence it was printed at different times by T. D. Thacher & Co., Speer & Smith, and Speer & Moore.

The Kansas State Journal succeeded the Herald of Freedom. It was established by Josiah C. Trask and Hovey E. Lowman, in February, 1861, on the material of the Herald of Freedom. Mr. Trask was killed in the Quantrill massacre, August 21,1863. In the spring of 1864, Lowman sold out to S. C. Smith and W. S. Rankin. In May, 180, James Christian and M. W. Reynolds purchased Smith's interest, and the paper was published in the name of Christian, Reynolds & Co. In the winter of 1866, Mr. Reynolds bought the interest of Mr. Christian, and in 1868, George A. Reynolds bought the interest of Mr. Rankin. March 3, 1868, the paper was consolidated with the Lawrence Republican and the Ottawa Home Journal, under the firm name of Kalloch, Thacher & Reynolds. The Daily State Journal was started by Christian & Reynolds, July 6,1865.

The Republican Daily Journal and Daily Kansas Tribune. This paper was started March 3, 1868. It was a consolidation of the Daily Lawrence Republican published by T. D. Thacher, the Daily State Journal published by M. W. Reynolds, and the Western Home Journal, a weekly paper published at Ottawa by I. S. Kalloch. The firm was known as Kalloch, Thacher & Reynolds.

In 1871, Mr. Thacher bought the interest of his partners, and became the sole proprietor.

In 1874, Mr. F. E. Stimpson became a partner in the concern. In December, 1874, Messrs. Thacher & Stimpson bought the name, good will, subscription list, and franchises of the Kansas Tribune, and consolidated it with the Journal, the name of the paper becoming the Republican Daily Journal and the Daily Kansas Tribune.

In 1876, Mr. Stimpson retired, and Mr. Timelier again became the sole proprietor.

In 1876, the Lawrence Journal Company was organized, and constitutes the present publisher of the paper.

The Western Home Journal is the name of the weekly edition of the above.

The paper is Republican in politics. T. D. Thacher has been connected with it from the beginning and still retains its management and control.

The Kansas Weekly Tribune was re-established at Lawrence, by John Speer, January 1, 1863. It was continued till August 21, following, when the office and material were destroyed by Quantrill. John M. Speer and Robert Speer, sons of John Speer, and Charles Palmer, a journeyman printer, were murdered at the same time. November, 1863, the Tribune was re-established as a daily and weekly by John Speer, who continued its publication till February 1, 1871, when it was sold to J. S. Emery, John Hutchings and J. H. Shimmons, Emery acting as editor for a short time, when he sold his interest to Hutchings & Shimmons, who conducted the paper until August 30, 1873. At this date I. S. Kalloch purchased the interest of Shimmons, and edited the paper until April 6, 1874, when he sold out to Hutchings, the latter being sole proprietor and editor from that time until July 7, of that year. He (Hutchings) then sold the office to E. H. Snow, Louis Melius and John Bain. These parties, under the firm name of Snow, Melius & Bain, continued the publication of the paper, with Melius as editor, until November 15,1874, when the paper again fell into the hands of Hutchings, and the publication was suspended December 6, following. It was revived October 20, 1875, by John Speer, J. E. Covel and George M. Richards, with Jelin Speer as editor. Richards retired January 24, 1876. Speer & Covel continued the publication till March 16, 1877, when Speer withdrew, and Covel has since carried on the paper alone. It is published as an evening daily, and is independent in politics, supporting the Greenback ticket in the late canvass.

The Home Circle was started at Baldwin City, in 1864, by P. A. Emery and Joseph Mount, the latter it mute. It continued about twelve weeks.

The Young America, a small amateur paper, was published for a short time in 1864-65, at Baldwin City, by Charles W. Goodin, a young son of Joel K. Goodin.

In 1664, the Baldwin City Observer was started by Warren Mitchell, who soon sold out to Mount & Hollingworth. The paper suspended in about a year. Some months later, in 1865, it was revived by I. Johnson & Sons, and subsequently Wallace Johnson & Co. became proprietors. The paper was finally suspended, about six months after its revival, and the material was removed to Fort Scott.

The Kansas New Era was started at Lecompton, September 26,1865, S. Weaver, editor and proprietor. May 22, 1867, the paper was removed to Medina, Jefferson county, and thence to Grasshopper Falls, now Valley Falls, where it is still continued. The New Era was and is a Republican paper.

The North Lawrence Courier was started July 28,1866, by J. S. Boughton. In September following the name was changed to the Kaw Valley Courier. February 9, 1867, George N. Boughton became associated in the publication, and continued until June 8th, following, when he withdrew. H. C. Whitney took an interest in, and became editor of, the paper September 14,1867, and the name was changed to the Clarion. In November following, Mr. Whitney withdrew, and Mr. Boughton sold the paper to John Speer, of the Lawrence Tribune. Mr. Boughton's paper was printed a part of the time at the Journal office and part of the time at the Tribune office. After the suspension of the paper, Judge H. H. Howard started and for some time published the North Lawrence Journal.

The Standard, Democratic, was established as a weekly, September 18, 1870, by a corporation composed of S. K. Husom, G. W. Sibert, D. T. Mitchell, Ely Moore, W. S. Rankin, Henry Leis, George A. Reynolds, and Wilson Shannon, Jr. It was continued by them till October, 1871, when D. T. Mitchell took sole control, and published it as a daily evening paper till October, 1875, when E. G. Ross and F. J. D. Skiff purchased it. They published it till August, 1876, when Eli Moore was substituted for Skiff, and the paper was continued by Ross & Moore till October 12,1876, when Ross became sole proprietor, and having admitted his son, Pitt Ross, as a partner, October, 1877, they have continued the publication until the present time.

The Spirit of Kansas, a farm and family paper, was started at Lawrence, February 3, 1872, by I. S. Kalloch and J. T. Stevens, under the firm name of I. S. Kalloch & Co. In February, 1873, Stevens purchased Kalloch's interest, and continued the paper till May, 1873, when E. G. Ross became a partner, and the firm was Ross & Stevens. In June, 1874, the partnership was dissolved, and Mr. Stevens has since been the editor and sole proprietor.

The Evening Paper was started January 8,1873, by E. G. Ross, and published for three weeks, when it suspended, after the senatorial election.

The State Sentinel, devoted to the temperance cause, was started in Leavenworth by David C. Beach, who removed it to Lawrence July 9,1875, slid continued to publish it to January 1, 1876, when it suspended.

The Vox Populi, a weekly paper, was started at Lawrence. in 1872, by Henry Bronson and J. C. Weybright. It was published a few months only, and merged I in the Standard.

Schools. Number of organized districts, 84; school population, 7,614; average salary of teachers, per month, males, $39.77, females, $30.28. School houses built during 1878, 3, frame, 2; stone, 1. Total number of school houses, 96; log, 1; frame, 44, brick, 17; stone, 34. Value of all school property, $183,004. No shade trees reported

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 5; membership, 540; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $25,000. Congregational: organizations, 4; membership, 510; church edifices, 3; value of church property, $50,000. Episcopal: organizations, 1; membership, 119; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $30,000. Lutheran: organizations, 2; membership, 90; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $4,000. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 17; membership, 1,188; church edifices, 6; value of church property, $22,200. Presbyterian: organizations, 7; membership, 400; church edifices, 5; value of church property, $20,200. Roman Catholic: organizations, 5; membership, 2,000; church edifices, 3; value of church property, $10,000. United Presbyterian: organizations, 1; membership, 69; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $8,000. Universalist: organizations, 1; membership, 47; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $15,000.

Transcribed from First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture to the Legislature of the State of Kansas, for the Years 1877-8 embracing statistical exhibits, with diagrams of the agricultural, industrial, mercantile, and other interests of the state, together with a colored outline map of the state, and sectional maps, in colors, of each organizaed county, showing their relative size and location, railroads, towns, post offices, school houses, water powers, etc., etc. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Rand, McNally & Co., Printers and Engravers, Chicago. 1878.


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