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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Cloud County

1878

Map of Cloud County - 1878

First settlements: Elk township, 1860, by Moses Heller; Lawrence township, 1864, L. D. Lawrence; Sibley township, 1860, John Allen; Buffalo township, 1865, John White; Grant township, 1869, Reg. Reed; Summit township, 1866, Seth and George Porter; Arion township, 1866, W. M. Wilcox; Center township, 1870, Z. Swearingin; Lincoln township 1866, R. N. H. Eaves; Nelson township, 1866, George Greathouse; Shirley township, 1860, J. M. Hagaman; Colfax township, 1870, George Ginder; Starr township, 1869, William Zaughn; Aurora township, 1869, F. A. Thompson; Meredith township, spring of 1865, A. W. Hopper; Lyon township, 1867; Solomon township, 1865, H. H. Spalding; Oakland township, 1870, M. Bagley. - First church buildings: Elk township, June, 1872, Missionary Baptist; first church organization, 1865, Methodist. There are church organizations in all the townships, but few church buildings, the public school houses being used. - First school houses: Elk township, at Clyde, 1866, by private subscription; Lawrence township, 1870, district No. 10; Sibley township, 1869, district No. 16; Buffalo township, 1871, district No. 50; Grant township, 1876, district No. 33; Summit township, 1872, district No. 41; Arion township, 1872, district No. 17; Center township, 1871, district No. 12; Lincoln township, 1870, district, No. 4; Nelson township, 1873, district No. 13; Shirley township, 1867, by J. M. Hagaman and John Thorp; Colfax township, 1873, district No. 71; Starr township, 1874, district No. 24; Aurora township, 1872, district No. 20; Oakland township, 1874, district No. 55; Meredith township, 1873, district No. 63; Lyon township, 1872, district No. 22. - First business established in the county: Davis & Cowel, 1866, at Clyde. - First marriage: Mat. Wilcox and R. Hovey, 1861. - First birth, Moses Hagaman, Shirley township, 1860. - First post office: 1865, at or near the present city of Clyde, Moses Heller, postmaster, which, position he still holds.

The county was organized in 1866.

Population in 1870, 2,323; population in 1875, 7,170: increase in five years, 4,847; population in 1878, 10,183; increase in eight years, 7,860. Rural population, 8,645; city or town population, 1,538; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 84.90.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop. TOWNSHIPS AND CITIES. Pop.
Arion 571 Aurora 415 Buffalo 421
Center 555 Colfax 415 Elk 758
Grant 331 Lawrence 381 Lincoln 1,417
Lyon 653 Meredith 469 Nelson 498
Oakland 310 Sibley 525 Summit 693
Shirley 697 Larr 396 Solomon 678

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 10 per cent.; upland, 90 per cent.; forest (Government survey), 3 per cent.; prairie, 97 per cent. Average width of bottoms - of the Republican river, four miles; of the Solomon, eight miles; general surface of the country, except the river bottoms, undulating.

Timber. - Average width of timber belts, 10 to 80 rods - confined to the streams. Varieties: oak, cottonwood, ash, hackberry, mulberry, elm. Acres of cultivated timber reported: cottonwood, 949; soft maple, 6; black walnut, 65; box elder, 190; other varieties, 250. Our correspondent thinks the county has 2,500 acres of forest trees in cultivation. Varieties, besides those named above: green ash, silver maple, honey locust, and willow.

Principal Streams. - Republican river runs in a southeastern direction, through the northern part of the county; tributaries, on the north, Camp, Hay, Salt, Little Upton and Elk creeks; on the south, Mulberry, Beaver, Elm, Plum, Oak, Buffalo and other creeks. Solomon river crosses the southwestern corner of the county, in a southeasterly direction; tributaries, Lost, Asher, Fisher, Yockey, Criss, Mortimer, and Pipe creeks. Chapman creek, a tributary of the Kansas river, has its source in the southeastern township of the county. The county is not largely supplied with springs; wells vary in depth from 10 to 100 feet.

Coal. - Prof. B. F. Mudge certifies that coal underlies half the county, near the surface, in veins from fifteen to thirty inches in thickness. Its use is local, and it sells for from $2 to $3 per ton. It is lignite coal. W. E. Reid states that this coal is mined in sections 1, 2 and 3, in town 5, of range 3 west. The veins run in from deep ravines, at a depth of about twenty-five feet below the general surface. Estimated that over 200,000 bushels were mined diring the past year.

Building Stone, etc. - Fossiliferous lime and sandstone found generally throughout the county; quality of the limestone fair; sandstone rather poor. Small deposits of fireclay in Lawrence and Center townships, and reported abundant in Elk township. Pottery clay in most of the townships - abundant in Elk.

Railroad Connections. - The central branch Union Pacific road runs east and west through the county, via Concordia.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 460,800; taxable acres, 216,221; under cultivation, 90,297.50; cultivated to taxable acres, 41.76 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 18,124.41.

LARGE YIELD. - Statement of Alvin Davidson, of Glasco.

Wheat. - Odessa variety, raised on Section 9, Township 8, Range 5. Six acres were sown the second week in September, 1877; harvested June 25th, 1878. Soil was a black loam, on river bottom; it was summer fallowed, and grain put in with a drill; the ground had been under cultivation six years. The product of this yields fifty-three bushels per acre, at a producing cost of $7.50 per acre.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $1,493; poultry and eggs, $4,070.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS.1872.1873.1874.1875.1876.1877. 1878.








Winter Wheat 3,674.00 3,673.00 2,637.00 5,421.00 4,286.00 4,281.00 6,446.00
Rye 7,665.00 665.00 1,090.00 3,527.00 6,215.00 4,858.00 4,942.00
Spring Wheat 2,107.00 5,944.00 16,546.00 16,771.50 20,905.00 10,544.00 27,104.00
Corn 8,462.00 32,810.00 22,775.00 22,034.00 22,054.00 38,160.00 35,686.00
Barley 192.00 694.00 899.00 2,290.75 4,409.00 3,340.00 2,128.00
Oats 1,430.00 2,857.00 4,836.00 4,317.50 4,219.00 2,920.00 4,505.00
Buckwheat 91.00 131.00 39.00 26.25 39.50 7.00 34.00
Irish Potatoes 474.00 680.00 877.00 476.53 786.30 681.00 806.00
Sweet Potatoes 42.00 37.00 31.00 22.73 27.50 11.00 27.00
Sorghum 203.00 289.00 247.00 263.90 189.75 281.00 210.00
Castor Beans 12.00 10.00 33.00 31.16 8.75 116.00 70.00
Cotton     1.00 0.25   15.00  
Flax 1.00 4.00 29.00 200.75 106.25 103.00 68.00
Hemp     2.00   1.00   1.50
Tobacco 1.00 7.00 18.00 1.62 6.75 10.88 3.00
Broom Corn     38.00 17.50 19.25 75.38 216.00
Millet and Hungarian 225.00 385.00 637.00 665.62 1,323.00 1,904.00 1,283.00
Timothy Meadow 1.00 18.00 24.00 10.24 20.50 3.75 169.00
Clover Meadow   20.00 95.00 2.87 6.33 7.75 9.00
Prairie Meadow 6,698.00 7,900.00 55.00 9,213.00 2,475.00 1,766.00 1,650.00
Timothy Pasture     55.00 3.00 1.00 20.00 14.00
Clover Pasture   6.00 2.00 0.50 3.00 1.33 4.00
Blue-Grass Pasture   7.00     3.00    
Prarie Pasture 3,591.00 2,733.00 2,078.00 19,913.75 15,980.00 3,067.00 4,922.00








Total 34,869.00 58,870.00 53,044.00 85,211.42 83,084.88 72,173.09 90,297.50

Increase in six years, 159 - per cent.
Average increase per annum, 26.50 - per cent.

RANK of Elk County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS.1872.1873.1874.1875.1876.1877. 1878.








Wheat 22 16 11 12 14 26 19
Corn 42 16 32 36 36 32 35








Total Acreage in all Crops 37 29 34 25 28 39 39

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

CROPS.ACRES IN
1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.
VALUE OF
PRODUCT
IN 1878.
INCREASE
OR
DECREASE
FROM 1877.







Winter Wheat - bu. 6,446.00 2,165.00 in. 161,150.00 105,497.00 in. $ 93,467.00 $57,292.55 in.
Rye - bu. 4,942.00 84.00 in. 123,550.00 7,616.00 de. 37,065.00 2,284.80 de.
Spring Wheat - bu. 27,104.00 16,560.00 in. 406,560.00 164,048.00 in. 191,083.20 45,576.00 in.
Corn - bu. 35,686.00 2,474.00 de. 1,534,498.00 182,702.00 de. 230,174.70 10,233.30 de.
Barley - bu. 2,128.00 1,212.00 de. 46,816.00 53,384.00 de. 13,108.48 14,947.52 de.
Oats - bu. 4,505.00 1,585.00 in. 189,210.00 46,130.00 in. 32,165.70 10,703.70 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 34.00 27.00 in. 408.00 324.00 in. 326.40 259.20 in.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 806.00 125.00 in. 80,600.00 32,930.00 in. 24,180.00 345.00 in.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 27.00 16.00 in. 2,916.00 1,266.00 in. 2,361.96 876.96 in.
Sorghum - gall. 210.00 71.00 de. 24,150.00 8,165.00 de. 12,075.00 4,082.50 de.
Castor Beans - bu. 70.00 46.00 de. 700.00 692.00 de. 875.00 517.00 de.
Cotton - lbs.   15.00 de.   2,550.00 de.   255.00 de.
Flax - bu. 68.00 35.00 de. 884.00 352.00 de. 884.00 413.80 de.
Hemp - lbs. 1.50 1.50 in. 1,380.00 1,380.00 in. 82.80 82.80 in.
Tobacco - lbs. 3.00 7.88 de. 2,220.00 5,831.20 de. 222.00 583.12 de.
Broom Corn - lbs. 216.00 140.62 in. 172,800.00 112,496.00 in. 6,480.00 4,218.60 in.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 1,283.00 621.00 de. 3,849.00 1,863.00 de. 13,471.50 6,520.50 de.
Timothy Meadow - tons 169.00 165.25 in. 202.80 198.30 in. 912.60 892.35 in.
Clover Meadow - tons 9.00 1.25 in. 12.60 1.75 in. 56.70 7.87 in.
Prairie Meadow - tons 1,650.00 116.00 de. 2,640.00 185.60 de. 6,600.00 464.00 de.
Timothy Pasture - acres 14.00 6.00 de.        
Clover Pasture - Acres 4.00 2.67 in.        
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres            
Prairie Pasture - acres 4,922.00 1,855.00 in.        







Total 90,297.50 18,124.41 in.     $ 665,592.04 $79,953.49 in.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1st, 1878, 529,852 bushels, or an average of 260 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Cheese manufactured in 1875, 675 lbs.; in 1878, 6,170 lbs.; increase, 5,495 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 107,879 lbs.; in 1878, 286,385 lbs.; increase, 178,506 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 3,233; in 1878, 4,501; increase, 1,268. Mules and asses, in 1877, 306; in 1878, 422; increase, 116. Milch cows, in 1877, 2,710; in 1878, 4,104; increase, 1,394. Other cattle, in 1877, 5,194; in 1878, 5,730; increase, 536. Sheep, in 1877, 4,004; in 1878, 5,770; increase, 1,766. Swine, in 1877, 11,866; in 1878, 24,792; increase, 12,926.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 36; value of sheep killed by dogs, $108.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 22,079 pounds.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $73,244.71.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 13.50. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 2,688; pear, 70; peach, 77,320; plum, 2,390; cherry, 834. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 12,717; pear, 633; peach, 37,817; plum, 3,573; cherry, 3,220.

Herd Law. - The herd law has been in force throughout the whole county since 1872. It tends greatly to promote the settlement of the county, because the scarcity of timber prevents any great amount of fencing. Some few "claim that it is detrimental to the cattle interest." The report adds that nine-tenths of the people favor it. It tends to retard the growing of hedges and fence building, and stimulates the growing of small grains more than stockraising. The only objection urged is, that it gives to the capitalist all the cattle, for the reason that parties with but a few head can not afford to herd them.

Fences. - Stone, 2,067 rods; cost $4,134. Rail, 4,885 rods; cost, $7,327.50. Board, 5,116 rods; cost, $7,418.20. Wire, 11,161 rods; cost, $8,259.14. Hedge, 51,463 rods; cost, $33,450.95. Total rods of fence, 74,692; total cost, $60,589.79.

Apiaculture. - No report

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $59,154.

Manufactures. - City of Clyde: brick manufactory, capital, $500; pottery, capital, $500; City of Concordia: water power flouring mill, capital, $8,500; wagon manufactory, capital, $1,800. Lawrence township: steam saw mill, capital, $400. Lincoln township: steam saw mill, capital, $800. Shirley township: pottery, capital, $500. Solomon township: waterpower flouring mill, capital, $6,000.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $395,681; railroad property, $75,043.28; total assessed valuation of all property, $1,212,360.07; true valuation of all property, $2,020,600.12. Total indebtedness of county, township, city, and school districts, $113,357.37; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, .09+.

Newspaper History. - The Republican Valley Empire was established at Clyde, in 1870, by Henry Buckingham. In the following year it was removed to Concordia, where it has ever since been published. It is now known as the Concordia Empire, and has been published since 1873, by H. E. Smith. It is Republican in politics.

The Watchman was published for a short time in 1871, at Clyde, by Mark J. Kelley. Subsequently it was revived by J. S. Paradis & Bro., published for a few months, and then removed to Concordia, in 1875, where it has since been published by J. S. Paradis as the Concordia Expositor. The paper is Republican in politics.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 94; school population, 3,892; average salary of teachers, per month, males, $26.06; females, $20.52. School houses built during 1878, 15; frame, 12; stone, 3. Total number of school houses, 72; log, 2; frame, 50; stone, 20. Value of all school property, $48,055. But very few of the school grounds have been ornamented with shade trees.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 4; membership, 136; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $3,000. Episcopal: membership, 10. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 15; membership, 420; church edifices, 3; value of church property, $4,300. Presbyterian: organizations, 7; membership, 210; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $7,500. Roman Catholic: organizations, 5; membership, 1,000; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $1,500. United Presbyterian: organizations, 1; membership, 12.

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